Send Our political “Leaders” to The Hague

The International Criminal Court (ICC) sits at The Hague.

We joined the ICC in 2002.  Since then, our treatment of people seeking asylum has involved various crimes against humanity.

So far, 5 communiques have been sent to the ICC, inviting it to investigate and prosecute our PMs and Immigration Ministers for crimes against humanity.  The one exception is Chris Evans, who behaved very well as Immigration Minister.  The rest: appalling.

Offshore processing has just made it worse.  The Memorandum of Understanding between Australia and Papua New guinea makes it clear that humane treatment was never the point: rather, the point was to end the people smuggling trade by holding refugees in horrible conditions for a long time.  For most of them, it’s been 4 years now.  MOU-PNG-Aus

To understand how our treatment of refugees amounts to a crime against humanity, here is one of the communiques.  Analysis of the legal aspects starts at page 15: Communiqué to ICC

Read why we need to take PM & Immigration Ministers to ICC

The ICC is the International Criminal Court.  It sits at The Hague.

So far 5 communiques have been sent to the ICC, urging it to investigate and prosecute Australian Prime Ministers and Immigration Ministers for various Crimes Against Humanity.

Here is one of them.  Australia signed up to the ICC in 2002, so it’s only PMs and Immigration Ministers since then who can be prosecuted.  They have all been engaged in crimes against humanity, other than Chris Evans, who did a lot of good.  But the rest of them: let’s get them to The Hague.

Here is one of the communiques.  You will see the legal foundations at page 15 and following.

Communiqué to ICC

 

Rebranding the nation

The Golden Rule

One of the few philosophical precepts which is practically universal is captured in the Christian teaching: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. In its original Biblical expression it says: “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.”.[1]

Described in the West as the Golden Rule, it is found in many religious and secular philosophies. It is found in Brahmanism: “This is the sum of Dharma [duty]: Do nothing to others which would cause you pain if done to you”.[2] In Buddhism:   “…a state that is not pleasing or delightful to me, how could I inflict that upon another?”.[3]  In Confucianism: “Do not do to others what you do not want them to do to you”.[4] In Islam: “None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself”.[5] And in Taoism: “Regard your neighbor’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss”.[6]

The same principle has been advocated by secular philosophers, including Epictetus,[7] Plato,[8] Socrates,[9] Seneca[10] and Immanuel Kant.[11]

The foundation of the idea is reciprocity and, in this setting, reciprocity is an expression of enlightened self-interest. Little wonder then that the idea is widespread. At its least, it tempers our basest impulses; at its highest, it produces acts of extraordinary altruism.

But the principle of reciprocity, and the Golden Rule which springs from it, sits uncomfortably with selfishness, which is a near-universal human characteristic. Human infant are near-perfect parasites: their every instinct is directed at self-preservation. It is a necessary characteristic in creatures which remain dependent on others for a very long time, unlike the infants of other species.

So: self-interest has been naturally selected because it helps us survive to adulthood. But as we grow up we learn that the way we behave now may have consequences later. We learn that it is often strategically wise to postpone or subordinate our immediate interests in favour of others.

The tension between these forces is everywhere to be seen and especially at times of stress. There are three areas in which I want to examine this tension: in relation to global warming; in relation to our treatment of boat people, and in relation to marginalized groups within our society.

Global Warming

The attempt of world leaders in 2009 to reach agreement at Copenhagen on dealing with the impact of climate change provided a useful illustration. The stakes at Copenhagen could scarcely have been higher. Depending on your view of the science, the leaders of all the world’s nations were deciding whether human existence on the planet would still be viable for the grandchildren of infants born today.  The same issues are still in play: right now in Paris.  Who knows what the result will be.

In the tension between selfishness and enlightened self-interest at Copenhagen, enlightenment did not get a good run. The problem, of course, is that enlightened self-interest is simply selfishness deferred or subordinated in the hope that greater rewards are to be had for ourselves by accommodating the reciprocal claims of others.   Our willingness to accommodate the interests of others dissolves quickly when circumstances cast doubt on whether we can collect on the promise. So as time runs out, developing nations see continued CO2 emissions as their last chance to catch up to the living standards of the developed world. And the developed nations look askance at China and India and complain that their total emissions exceed those of the West, even if the West’s per capita contribution tops the charts. Ultimately, selfish considerations triumph because no one is confident that they can collect what the principle of reciprocity promises. Where the circumstances suggest that the other side will not reciprocate your altruism, enlightened self-interest aligns with unalloyed selfishness.

Refugee Policy

Establishing a generally acceptable refugee policy faces the same tensions. It inevitably involves striking a balance between the same, mutually incompatible human sentiments: selfishness and enlightened self-interest. At its foundation, our willingness to help others in distress springs from the fear that we may ourselves be in like distress some day, and would wish to be treated kindly. Or else it springs from a sense of guilt that we have somehow permitted another to suffer in ways which conscience cannot justify. It is no accident that the Refugees Convention was the product of World War II and, especially, the horrors of the Nazi death camps when they were exposed to the World’s gaze in 1945. Although most people in most nations must have reckoned as slight their prospects of ever being refugees in like circumstances, the enormity of what had happened persuaded them that they should be charitable. Many countries, including Australia, had avoided doing anything to help Jewish refugees before the war. A combination of guilt and fellow-feeling persuaded the world community to do better in the future, or at least to promise to do so.

Having signed the Refugees Convention, Australia was in the happy position of being geographically remote from most of the places which have, typically, generated refugee flows. We created a modest off-shore resettlement programme, under which a fixed number of refugees would be identified in refugee camps overseas and would be offered resettlement in Australia. This had the dual benefits of instilling a sense of our own virtue and, incidentally, enabling us to select refugees in accordance with our current demographic needs and social inclinations.

But it was still, ultimately, about numbers. Clearly enough, after the War, Australia set out to increase the population. “Populate or perish” was the catch-cry. The objective was helped by migrants and refugees.

Of course, some refugees managed to arrive here apart from the resettlement programme, but in such small numbers as never to present any difficulty or, let it be noted, provide any great opportunity for political exploitation. We were, without having to say so, able to decide who came into Australia and the circumstances in which they came.

After the Vietnam war things changed. Large numbers of Indo-Chinese boat people headed this way and – unlike the position in previous wars – the point of displacement was not very far away. The Coalition government of Malcolm Fraser took a stand of clear principle: we had been involved in the Vietnam war; our involvement was part of the reason people were fleeing; we therefore had a moral responsibility to receive them. And we did, in substantial numbers. They arrived at a rate of about 25,000 a year, but they were absorbed into the community with relatively little fuss. Their children are now doctors and engineers and scientists; their cuisine is now an embedded part of our way of life.

Our response was very different during the Prime Ministership of John Howard, even though the arrival rate was much smaller. During the whole of John Howard’s time as Prime Minister, the total number of boat people who came to Australia was about 15,000: a smaller total in 11 years than came in the first four years of the Fraser government.

What the Howard years showed is that the public can quickly be inflamed to fear and hatred of refugees if that course commends itself to the government. There are three main approaches which will achieve this result: emphasize their ‘otherness’; call them criminals; and create the spectre that they are coming in large numbers. The Howard government used each of these devices. Each of them affects the balance between selfishness and enlightened self-interest. If they seem to be very different from us, we will have more trouble getting used to them; if they are criminals, we need to be protected from them; if they come in large numbers we will not be able to cope. With attitudes like these, enlightened self-interest suggests that we should discourage or repel them. What good can come of it? And of course if they are ‘illegals’ then they simply do not deserve our charity. [Please note: boat people are not “illegal”.  It is not an offence to arrive in Australia without papers and seek protection from persecution.  Would someone please tell the tabloid journalists this simple fact.  And then tell the politicians.]

The Rudd government also came under pressure about refugee policy. Rudd’s first Immigration Minister, Senator Chris Evans, abolished the shameful Temporary Protection Visas and announced a new philosophy of immigration detention. A key element of this was that immigration detention should be for as short a time as reasonably possible, and children should not be in detention at all, except as a last resort. This did not cause any grief when it was announced in July 2008, perhaps because very few asylum seekers were arriving on our shores. (Australians are capable of great generosity, especially if it is not called on).

But by the start of 2009, things had begun changing. Afghanistan had convulsed again, with the Taliban’s brutality causing a new wave of terrified Hazaras to flee. And in Sri Lanka the ill-fated attempt of the Tamil Tigers to establish their own homeland was finally crushed. Refugee boats began arriving regularly. By the end of 2009, about 2,800 boat people had come to Australia, most of them being taken to Christmas Island for processing. Newspaper headlines emphasized the number of arrivals, and the Federal Opposition, led by Tony Abbott, began taunting the government with the suggestion that refugees were arriving in Australia as a result of the Rudd government’s “soft line on border protection”. It seems that Christmas Island was used as a place of detention and processing for political and strategic reasons. But Christmas Island is tiny, and its detention capabilities were eventually overstretched, creating an artificial crisis of sorts.

The public reaction was not quite as it had been in 2001 when the Tampa rescued 438 Afghan asylum seekers from a sinking boat. But the Tampa episode happened just two weeks before September 11, and refugee policy elided with border control and swiftly morphed into border protection. Suddenly we needed to be protected from refugees. This time the reaction was simply a reaction to the numbers.

Under the leadership of Tony Abbott, the Opposition started talking up the numbers, creating a climate of panic in the tabloid media in which the numbers could be deployed to poison the public mood. The argument – sometimes explicit, sometimes just conveyed by impressions – was that we must not receive refugees in large numbers because we are a large, but dry, continent; we must conserve our precious resources, especially water; we cannot take all the world’s refugees, so we must adopt a firm stance: people smuggling is a ‘vile’ trade, and we must not be soft on people smugglers. If we are seen as a soft touch, we will be overrun.  It is worth noting that Kevin Rudd responded to Abbott’s fear-mongering by criticizing people-smugglers and (in his second reincarnation as PM) revived harsh treatment of boat people as a deterrent measure.

It is at this point that the tension between selfishness and enlightened self-interest is tested. Selfishness inclines us to keep this country to ourselves, and to share it only with people who can benefit us. Enlightened self-interest tells us that refugees, and migration generally, have benefitted Australia in countless ways and it tells us something more subtle about the idea of being true to your values. But concerns about climate change and environmental sustainability of finite resources are readily harnessed as a rational basis for resisting increased numbers of refugees. After all, it is argued, the carrying capacity of this fragile continent is finite and limited. Millions of refugees are on the move, and we cannot take them all. It sounds respectable and rational, especially as we consider the need to take into account the prospect of environmental refugees in the near future. But there are several answers to this which present, and future, governments will have to take into account.

First, the number of boat people getting to Australia at present is still tiny and is likely to remain so. Looking at global refugee flows misses the point that very few of them come here. If numbers are a concern, here are some to consider:

  • Australia’s population: 23 million
  • Number of visitors arriving in Australia each year (for tourism, business etc): ~ 4.5 million
  • Number of permanent new immigrants each year: ~185,000
  • Refugee/humanitarian quota per year: 13,500
  • Number of asylum seekers who come to Australia by air each year: ~5,000 (it varies)
  • Number of asylum seekers who came to Australia by boat in 2009: approx 2,800 (equivalent to 5 days’ migration intake)

It is hard to understand why anyone can be much troubled by an unauthorised arrival rate of 2,800 per year. Or 8,000 or 28,000. In the abstract, it makes sense to be concerned about the number of unauthorised arrivals each year: but as a matter of practicality, there can be no rational basis for concern unless the numbers are demographically relevant which, in Australia, they clearly are not. The Australian situation is very different from that in other countries: some Asian and African countries receive millions of unauthorised arrivals each year; Europe receives hundreds of thousands of unauthorised arrivals each year.

We have never had that problem in Australia, nor are we likely to. The arrival rate of asylum seekers in Australia is never likely to be very great, largely because the voyage is difficult and dangerous. Our geography insulates us, as our history demonstrates.

The largest number of boat people to arrive in Australia in any one year was just on 25,000. That was in 2012. Before and since, the numbers were much smaller. But even 25,000 people arriving in one year is not a large number, when considered in context.

Australia’s treatment of boat people came in for intense criticism by more than 100 countries at Geneva in November 2015.  Because of the large number of countries who wanted to comment on Australia, each nation had only 65 seconds in which to comment on Australia’s human rights regime.  It should be a source of major embarassment to us, but went largely unnoticed.

An Alternative Approach

If I could re-design the system, it would look something like this. Boat-arrivals would be detained initially for a maximum of one month, for preliminary health and security checks. That detention would be subject to extension but only if a court was persuaded that a particular individual should be detained longer.

After that period of initial detention, boat arrivals would be released into the community on an interim visa with a number of conditions that would apply until the person’s refugee status was decided:

  • they would be required to report regularly to a Centrelink office or a post office, to make sure they remained available for the balance of their visa processing;
  • they would be allowed to work;
  • they would be entitled to Centrelink and Medicare benefits;
  • they would be required to live in a specified rural town or regional city.

A system like this would have a number of benefits. First, it would avoid the harm presently inflicted on refugees held in detention. Prolonged detention with an unknown release date is highly toxic: experience over the past 15 years provides plenty of evidence of this.

Second, any government benefits paid to refugees would be spent on accommodation, food and clothing in country towns. There are plenty of towns in country areas which would welcome an increase in their population and a boost to their local economy. According to the National Farmers Federation, there are about 90,000 unfilled jobs in rural areas in Australia. It is likely that adult male asylum seekers would look for work, and would find it.

But let’s look at some hypotheticals. Let us suppose that the unprecedented spike in arrivals seen in 2012 becomes the new normal: so, we will expect about 25,000 boat people to arrive here each year. And let’s suppose all of them stay on full Centrelink benefits for the whole time it takes to decide their refugee status.

If these very unlikely possibilities come about, it would cost the Federal Government about $500 million a year, all of which would go into the economy of country towns. By contrast, the current system costs about $5 billion a year. That’s an unimaginably large amount of money.  If you need another measure, each year our detention system costs about one million Geelong Chopper Rides.  By adopting this alternative approach, we will not only stop causing great harm, we will save about $4.5 billion a year, and we would be doing good rather than harm.

The Need to Deal with These Problems

It is vital for the future of Australia that we understand these matters clearly, because there is another predictable source of quasi-refugees in the foreseeable future: people from Pacific Island nations which become uninhabitable because of climate change. Global warming is a fact. Only contrarians and the lunatic fringe are putting up any real opposition to the idea that the IPCC reports are accurate, but possibly conservative.

Whether or not we manage to co-operate globally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the polar ice-caps are melting, glaciers are retreating, and the Greenland Ice Shelf is at serious risk. Apart from regional effects on arable land and the consequent effects on world food supplies, population in low-lying areas will be profoundly affected by rising sea levels.

A sea level rise of one to two metres, coupled with the effect of tidal surges and storms, will displace tens of millions of people around the world. Displaced populations in the coastal areas of continents and large islands will likely move inland. Depending on the continued viability of coastal cities, the movement is likely to be slow – it will likely happen over a number of decades. Abnormal weather events, like Hurricane Katrina, may cause sudden displacement of large populations, although they will probably not be permanent displacements.

Pacific islands present a different challenge. Many of them already have fragile economies. Many of them are low-lying. As a matter of certainty, a number of them will disappear or become unlivable if sea levels rise between one and two metres. Their inhabitants will look to Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and (especially) Australia.

Although we think of them in prospect as ‘environmental refugees’, this is not accurate as a matter of law. A refugee is a person who meets the criterion in the Refugees Convention of 1951, that is: a person who, being outside his or her country, is unable or unwilling to return to it because of a well-founded fear of persecution on grounds of race, religion, nationality, politics etc.

Environmental refugees may be unwilling to return – and if their country has disappeared, they certainly will be unable to return – but not for fear of persecution. They are not refugees within the Convention definition. But we refer to them as refugees because of the obvious analogy between their position and that of other refugees.

Environmental refugees may turn out to be the greatest challenge facing Australia in the domain of refugee policy during the next generation. What will we do to prepare ourselves to meet the challenge? And what is the right response to the challenge? For reasons set out later, I do not think the demographic challenge associated with environmental refugees is terribly difficult. What may be more difficult is the ethical challenge.   Put simply, will we turn them away and let them drown? Or will we receive them and treat them humanely?

The Copenhagen Conference ended in failure. What was seen by many as an opportunity for the human race to respond in a united way to a global threat which has no equivalent in recorded history has generated no agreement, no united front: it was dominated by national selfishness. There seemed to be general agreement that the problem is important and real, but the response brings to mind the unhappy image of a philosophical debate between the pilot and the navigator as the 747 heads spectacularly towards a mountain. The seriousness of the matter was well expressed by Christina Ora from the Solomon Islands. She published in The Age newspaper an account of the speech she gave at Copenhagen. She said:

“I am 17 years old. For my entire life, countries have been negotiating a climate agreement. My future is in front of me. In the year that I was born, amid an atmosphere of hope, the world formed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to solve the climate crisis.

In the Solomon Islands, my homeland, communities on low-lying atolls are already being displaced by rising sea levels. Communities have lived on these atolls for generations. Moving from one province to another in the Solomon Islands is not just like moving house. Your land is your identity. It is part of your culture. It is who you are.

I am scared, and so too are the people from these atolls about what this means for our culture, our communities and our identity …”

There are great technical questions involved in our response to climate change, and great political questions involved in responding in a way which will be effective. But Christina Ora got directly to the heart of the moral problem when she wrote those words. Her home and her identity are threatened in the most fundamental way. What are we going to do about it? At present, the answer seems to be: nothing useful.

The civilized nations of the world need to recognise the fact that environmental refugees are human beings who deserve a place to stand and a chance to survive, because they, like us, are members of the human race. But their claim for our help is stronger than that. The wealth of the developed world, the wealth we enjoy today in Australia, was created by the very activities which have caused global warming. The conditions we enjoy today came at a price to the environment, a price we have been able to recognise for at least the time since Christina Ora was born. We cannot decently expect the Pacific Islands to pay the price for us. The life we enjoy so much in Australia has had its impact on Christina Ora’s country: an impact which may prevent her from having a place to live. She wrote:

“Because of climate change, I am uncertain about what is to come. How can I feel that my future is safe? How can I be sure that my home village won’t disappear in 10 years’ time? How can I be sure that my community won’t have to find a new home? How can I be sure that I will be able to raise my children in the same place that my mother and father raised me? I am not sure. I am scared and worried.”

We owe her.

Apart from all the other steps which need to be taken, we need a new international treaty which recognizes environmental refugees as people who are entitled to protection. It is a global problem and calls for a global response. This is no revolutionary idea: it is a matter of simple decency. It is the Golden Rule in action. Unfortunately, apart from trade and commerce, we are not good at global co-operation. Australia can, and should, develop its own framework for the protection of environmental refugees who arrive on our shores. Ideally, it should be done in co-operation with our Pacific neighbours.

Australia is well placed to take constructive steps to help protect environmental refugees from the Pacific. It will certainly need careful and sensitive planning, because environmental refugee flows are likely to have features which are not shared by traditional refugee flows. In particular, their escape to safety is likely to be more planned, and much less hurried, than is typical among those fleeing persecution. The threat can be seen long before it hits. Entire communities are likely to move. Resettling them should take account of that reality. This brings with it an increased need to help preserve their cultural integrity as far as possible.

The prophets of doom will, of course, raise the spectre of Australia being engulfed by a tide of environmental refugees. In truth, the likely numbers will not be very great in demographic terms. For example, the population of all the islands comprising Micronesia is a total of about 575,000 people. The population of all of the islands comprising Polynesia is a total of about 662,000 people. The population of all of the Pacific islands, is about three million people. Even in the unlikely circumstance that all of those three million people had to be absorbed into the Australian population over the course of 10 years, it would be manageable, although it would have a significant demographic impact. On present trends, regardless of climate change, we are likely to receive, voluntarily, about two million permanent new migrants over the next 10 years.

Of course it is highly unlikely that the entire population of the entire Pacific would need, or for that matter choose, to move to Australia. So the numerical size of the problem will certainly be less than three million people. A more realistic way of looking at the matter is to consider which Pacific islands are most likely to become uninhabitable over the next decade. That restricts the range to the smaller islands. If we adopt a population of 50,000 or less as indicating smaller islands which are more likely to be inundated and made uninhabitable by rising sea levels, the picture becomes much simpler. There are 11 island nations in Oceania with populations smaller than 50,000. Their combined populations total 87,000 people. That number of people could be absorbed into the Australian community in a single year with no discernable difficulty at all.

As a matter of ordinary human experience, people are generally reluctant to leave the place of their birth unless they have to. If the population of low-lying islands in the Pacific are forced to move because their homeland becomes uninhabitable, the scale of the problem is one which Australia can manage, and the nature of the problem is one which Australia ought to manage. We should be prepared to recognise them as people who deserve protection, and grant it to them without resentment.

It may be objected that all of this sounds like a lot of trouble. Perhaps we will ask the rest of the world to shoulder the burden for us, as we did while we held Afghans and Iraquis on Nauru under the ‘Pacific Solution’, or as we did, even more brazenly, when we asked the rest of the world to take care of 78 Tamils held on the Australian Customs vessel Oceanic Viking in November 2009. But it is not as simple as that: it is not just a transient embarrassment that the international community thinks poorly of us for a time.

Our response to the legitimate claims of environmental refugees will define us. If we respond by shutting our doors, or by denying that environmental refugees have legitimate claims to our help, we declare ourselves to be selfish and thankless, just as surely as we showed ourselves to be callous and xenophobic when we embraced, for a time, the refugee policies of John Howard.

Given the scale of the major problems, it might be thought that individual goodness and national reputation count as trivial. But they are not. They go directly to a fundamental existential question: Do we think that we, as a nation, can survive while being true to our values? Do we genuinely believe the things we have for generations said about our ethics and ourselves? Or do we think that, when the crunch comes, it’s everyone for themselves? These questions involve much more than issues of presentation and packaging; they are matters of identity: Who are we?

If we take global warming as a reason to pull the drawbridge up, we will betray the entire accumulated legacy of human civilization which, with all its flaws, has always aspired to goodness even while falling short. We will betray the identity we have hewn for ourselves out of this tough country since the time of white settlement.

Marginalised citizens

I had a conversation with Tim Costello some years ago which significantly changed my way of seeing things.

He told me of a time when he was running the Collins St Baptist Church. A guy who had been sleeping rough for quite a while had turned up at the Church wanting a feed. Tim was talking to him. The guy said that that conversation was the first time in two weeks he had had eye contact with any other human being.

I can scarcely imagine what that must be like. That man had, at least in his own mind, completely disappeared.

I have thought about that conversation often. The idea of such alienation haunts me. But there are many people in our society who have, at least in their own minds, disappeared. These are the people who, because of mental health problems, or simple bad luck, find themselves nursing a grievance that no-one wants to hear about. The more they complain, the more they are ignored; the more they are ignored, the louder they complain. The louder they complain, the more they are avoided, viewed with suspicion. And once that cycle sets in, their problems become more and more real to them, less and less real to those around them.

These are the people who ring late night talk-back radio and harangue the host until even the panel operators know to filter them out. They are the new outcasts.

My conversation with Tim came in useful during the first round of Australia’s recent panic about asylum seekers. Between 2001 and about 2006, a lot of Australians were persuaded to be anxious about boat people arriving here. After all, the Howard government had told us they were illegals; that they had thrown their children into the sea; that they had jumped a queue somewhere. And the struggle to prevent the country from being swamped by this tide of potential terrorists was paraded as “border protection”.

Howard recognised that there were votes to be taken from One Nation if only he could make us fear the alien horde and position himself as our protector. It worked.

There is a story that I have on fair authority which shows clearly what was going on. Howard was about to enter the House of Representatives to deliver his speech explaining the government’s response to the Tampa. Jackie Kelly approached him in the lobby. She said that a lot of her constituents were deserting to One Nation. Howard waved his speech in front of her and said “Don’t worry – this will fix it”. As most people thought at the time, the government’s response to the Tampa was purely political. Of course, Howard had a great run of good luck in 2001. His government refused to let the Tampa put its bedraggled cargo of rescued Hazaras ashore on Christmas Island; he cobbled together the Pacific Solution while the court case about Tampa continued. The judgment at first instance in the Tampa case was handed down at 2.15 Eastern Standard Time, on September 11, 2001. The result was not noticed in the newspapers next morning, because a group of Islamic extremists had attacked America.

From that moment, there were no terrorists, but Muslim terrorists; there were no boat people but Muslim boat people and, although it was never clearly stated, all boat people were suspected terrorists – our worst nightmare. For those who did not see through the political opportunism, boat people were aliens to be feared.

Of course, if the true facts were understood, our response would have seemed rather odd. it did not suit the politicians to acknowledge that boat people were not illegal, that there was no queue, that they had not thrown their children overboard, and that they were trying to escape the same extremists we were so frightened of.

For my sins, I became involved in the issue. I was regularly asked to speak, at public events and private, about asylum seekers. It seemed to me that the key to the problem was to explain the facts. Naively I thought that most Australians would recoil at the idea of wilfully mistreating men, women and children who had done nothing wrong but try to escape to safety.

A couple of unexpected things happened. First, I got a few death threats. It surprised me that, having done a few pretty contentious cases in my career, I should receive death threats for going to court pro bono on behalf of people who were, self-evidently, voiceless and powerless.

And whenever I was quoted in the media saying something outrageous like “It is wrong to imprison innocent children and drive them to suicide”, I would receive a torrent of hate mail.

The anger and intensity of the hate mail astonished me then, and it still does. It struck me as remarkable that people would write to a complete stranger in such bluntly abusive terms. And the mail I got was seriously, vigorously abusive.

Since I had set myself the goal of converting all of Australia to understanding the facts, I decided to answer all the hate mail. After all, these people had self-identified as disagreeing with my views. My reasoning, flawed as it looks now, was that if only the people who disagreed with me could understand the facts, then they would come around to my way of seeing things. If enough people changed their views, the government policy would have to change. Clearly I did not know what I was dealing with.

Still, I resolved to answer all the mail I could. Mail that came by post was impossible to answer because, as a rule, people who use the postal service are a forgetful lot who did not include a name or address. But most of it came by email and, even if I did not know the sender’s identity, I could respond by simply hitting the reply button.

I sat up late at night answering emails: thousands of them, mostly abusive. Some of them all in capitals; lots of exclamation marks and lots of very rude words. I am no shrinking violet, but I was astonished by the rudeness of many of the emails I got. Unpopularity brings strange rewards.

Since their complaints fell into a few recognisable patterns, I had a few standard responses. Typically I would grit my teeth and say something like “Thank you for your email. I gather you do not agree with me. But did you realise that … “ they do not break any law by coming here asking for protection; there is no queue… etc

If I was surprised by the rudeness and vehemence of most of the emails, what followed was even more astonishing. Nearly all of them responded to my reply…and every response was polite. The responses fell into a few patterns, but typically they said “thank you for answering me, I did not expect to hear from you. The facts you sent me are all very well, but …” and then they would set out other objections. I replied with more facts to answer those objections.

Over the course of thousands of bits of hate mail, I estimate that about 50% ended up saying, in substance “Thank you for discussing this issue with me. I agree with you now”; and about 25% ended up saying, in substance “Thank you for discussing this issue with me. I don’t agree with you, but it is good that you stand up for what you believe”. The other 25% remained entirely unconvinced and, I assume, continued to vote for Mr Howard.

What struck me in all this was the story Tim had told me. I guessed that the people who wrote to me – and who did not expect a reply – were so alienated from the community that their only means of expressing their anger and fear and resentment and confusion was by writing to someone mildly prominent.

It occurred to me then that the passion which drove their initial hostility was the mark of people who were alienated from the community: they were accustomed to being ignored, so they fall to shouting abuse as a way of getting attention. Just once listen to them, and they quickly fall back to observing the ordinary rules of civil behaviour.

This is not just an argument for good manners: I think it goes much deeper. Too many people in our community feel alienated from it and that alienation is unstable: it tends not to self-correct, but to amplify itself.

We are a prosperous country: most of us are genuinely lucky. But we are not good at sharing our luck, and we have a strange habit of thinking that those who are less lucky must be, in some way, responsible for their own misfortunes.

There are many reasons why members of the community become alienated from it. They may have been dealt a bad hand: they have been born poor, they have been badly educated, they have a mental or physical disability, they have bad luck in employment, they make bad choices which lead them into a hopeless life. Any one of these disadvantages can lead to a cascade of events which leave a person at the bottom of the pile. And when compassion turns to vindictiveness these people suffer twice for the disadvantages they could not avoid.

Because everyone, it seems, knows my name, address and occupation I get a lot of unsolicited requests for pro bono help. It has been interesting, not to say distressing, to see the sort of troubles that plague people in our community. I get a large number of requests for help. I make it clear that all I can do is offer pro bono advice. I have a group of talented interns who help me deal with the problems.

What is distressing is that the majority of people who write to me this way do not in fact have a recognisable legal or human rights problem. Typically they are people who have had some bad luck, have made some bad choices, and find themselves trapped in a spiral of disadvantage, distress, unemployment and mental instability. At that point, anything that looks like a legal or human rights problem prompts them to reach out for help. I imagine that medical clinics have a similar experience.

When I write to them with further questions, or with advice about what to do, it usually becomes clear that they have already been to just about every imaginable place for help: Legal Aid, a Community Legal Centre, government departments, their local doctor or MP. No-one can help them, because they have no single, clear problem apart from the fact that they feel alienated from everything. Part of their distress is caused by feeling so isolated.

The most distressed, and distressing, group are people who are probably paranoid schizophrenics. One person who writes to me quite often is convinced that the police, and other government agencies, are spying on him all the time and that they have a secret control order against him. He is intelligent and well-educated. He sends video footage of ordinary street scenes, at the traffic lights, in shopping centres, in suburban streets and he asserts (and no doubt believes) that various people captured on his videos are in fact plain clothes operatives – stalking him, watching him, keeping him in a kind of open prison. He points out, rationally enough, that such conduct is a serious breach of his human rights. And if the innocuous scenes he sent showed what he sees, he would be right. But they do not show what he sees. They prove nothing at all. He insists that the Commonwealth government have a secret control order against him: but he can offer no explanation how a control order can work, if it is kept secret from everyone.

The difficulty with people like this man is that they cannot be convinced that their view of the facts does not line up with reality. And it is hard for a lawyer to tell a would-be client that he needs psychiatric help.

The end result is that people like him get pushed from pillar to post but rarely if ever get the help they actually need.

There are only a couple of bright spots in this dismal tale.

The first concerns a lady who turned up in my chambers one lunchtime, quite distressed and wanting to see me. We chatted for a bit, but the long and short of it was that she had been receiving treatment for paranoid schizophrenia, her treatment had been interrupted; she became convinced that her treating doctor was trying to kill her with the medications he had prescribed, so she decided not to take it any more. She wanted me to take possession of the diary she had been keeping because she was confident that she would soon be killed and she wanted me to have the evidence which would identify the guilty party.

We spoke for some time. Somehow I managed to persuade her to go to a new doctor – someone who could not possibly know or conspire with her treating doctor – and agree to take whatever medication he prescribed. In the meantime I would protect her diary.

About two months later she turned up again.   She had been to another doctor. She had taken the medication he prescribed. She was feeling a lot better, and realised that she had misjudged her original doctor. In the circumstances, she did not need me to look after her diary any more.

How odd that one of my few successes in the field of human rights should result from a modicum of medical knowledge and a bit of common sense.

The second bright spot is this. Most of the people who write asking for pro bono help have simply not got a legal problem. While they may have had a genuine legal problem in the past, typically it is buried in history and statute barred years or decades before. The real problem is that their lives have gone off track, and they no longer feel any connection to the society which has let them down so badly. A surprising number of these people seem to benefit from having their problem taken seriously, from getting a written advice in response to their letter, or from being listened to for half an hour.

The message is clear: in our Society there is a large number of people who feel alienated. They feel, with some justification, that the show is being run for the benefit of others and not for them.

A decent concern for our fellow citizens says that we should notice these alienated ones and help them know that they belong with us. And if simple human decency will not impel us to do it, then enlightened self-interest should: once there is a large enough group of disaffected individuals in our midst, the chances of some of them taking steps to damage the rest of us increase. And who is to say they are wrong? Who among us would long tolerate being excluded from the goods Society has to offer?

Conclusion

The moral rebranding of a nation goes to the heart of inter-generational justice, just as surely as our environmental legacy does. But this is easily overlooked. It involves more than issues of deceptive packaging. We are handing over to the next generation a world beset by problems which are unique in human history and which do, without exaggeration, involve challenges for civilization as we understand it, and perhaps for the continued survival of the human species. We should avoid saddling the next generation with a tarnished national reputation to add to these burdens. But more than that, we should try to hand over a country which has had the decency to be true to its declared values.

Individuals and groups have faced equivalent tests before this. Many people have seen the film Hotel Rwanda. It is set against the backdrop of the genocide which occurred in Rwanda in the first half of 1994, when Hutu rebels slaughtered 900,000 Tutsis in the space of 100 days. The central figure in the film is Paul Rusesabagina.

Paul is a Hutu married to a Tutsi woman. He is manager of a hotel in Kigali. When the Hutu uprising begins, the world turns its back on the slaughter. Paul turns the hotel into an ad hoc refugee camp for almost a thousand people, and keeps them safe at immense personal risk. He calls in favours, he bribes corrupt officials and he witnesses unspeakable horrors. There is a key moment in the film where he has a chance to escape to safety, but decides, on the instant, to stay at the hotel until the refugees are safe. We see it immediately as an act of heroism but also of madness – Who in their right mind would risk taking on the Hutu mob?

The remarkable thing is that the film is entirely true. Paul Rusesabagina commanded personal resources beyond imagining. He succeeded in saving the 1,000 refugees who crowded into his hotel; with them, he escaped to safety; he now lives in Belgium. He has been given Amnesty International’s “Enduring Spirit” award, and in 2000 he received the Immortal Chaplain’s Prize for Humanity.

He brings to mind Primo Levi’s friend Lorenzo, in Auschwitz. Levi wrote of him:[12]

“… he constantly reminded me, by his presence, by his natural and plain manner of being good, that there still existed a just world outside our own … a remote possibility of good, but for which it was worth surviving…”

The events in Rwanda developed with astounding speed: no-one recognised in advance the direction things would take; no-one imagined in advance that the Hutu uprising would be so swift and so savage.

It is not possible for any of us to know how we would respond in similar circumstances. It is undeniable however that some people have the strength to recognise that there is a time to say, regardless of the cost, “this cannot happen”.

We are mistreating boat people, out of a misconceived fear that they are criminals: a fear provoked by political lies.

We are denying the reality of climate change.

We are increasingly disinclined to notice those of our own citizens whose luck has dealt them a bad hand.

And all the while we cherish the belief that, as a nation, we are generous, decent people.

Paul Rusesabagina held true to his principles at the point when it mattered most; in Auschwitz, Primo Levi’s friend Lorenzo did the same. Most of us would like to think we could act with similar decency, even if we had not the same courage.

But we are failing the test with refugees, and soon we will be tested again. The circumstances will not be as dramatic; it will not be the occasion for epic heroism.   But our choices will decide whether our neighbours in the Pacific have a chance of living, or will be left to drown as their islands disappear. We will choose between selfishness and decency. Our response to the plight of climate refugees will tell the next generation of Australians who we were. Will we be true to them? Will we be true to ourselves?

If we had to answer that question right now, as the Federal Government shows by its conduct that it does not believe global warming is real, then the answer would be disappointing.   So it is time to stand up and declare ourselves. Australia can cope with the predictable number of climate refugees likely to seek a home here. We like to think that it is in our decent and generous nature to help those who need our help. We can do it. We can do it and survive.

For the sake of future generations of Australians, let us hope that we will we be true to ourselves when it counts. If we are to be led by enlightened self-interest, we need to recognize minimal cost of living up to our ideals, and the immense value of doing so.

 

[1] King James Bible, Matthew 7:12

[2] Mahabharata, 5:1517

[3] Samyutta Nikaya v. 353

[4] Analects 15:23

[5] Number 13 of Imam Al-Nawawi’s Forty Hadiths

[6] T’ai Shang Kan Ying P’ien

[7] “What you would avoid suffering yourself, seek not to impose on others.”

[8] “May I do to others as I would that they should do unto me.”

[9][9] “Do not do to others that which would anger you if others did it to you.”

[10] “Treat your inferiors as you would be treated by your superiors.”

[11] “Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of nature.”

[12] If This is a Man Primo Levi.

Renate Kamener Oration 2016

Renate Kamener Oration 2016

Is Islamophobia the new anti-Semitism?

Julian Burnside

Introduction

It is a fine thing for a family to remember a loved one with an annual speech.    To remember your loved mother each year by a public act of remembering is a truly wonderful thing. In The Tempest, Prospero says: “We are such stuff as dreams are made on; and our little life is rounded with a sleep´. If Shakespeare was right, this annual oration means that the sleep is not dreamless.

The Rabbi who celebrated her life at the Cremation on Friday 13 March 2009 said of Renate Kamener:

We are gathered to show our great love, admiration and appreciation of a remarkable and special woman – Renate Kamener – adored daughter, loving wife and life-partner, wonderful mother, supportive sister-in-law, welcoming mother in law, generous and giving colleague and trusted and valued friend.  …

Incidentally, the Rabbi was close to an hour late for the service, because he got the time wrong.  Renate was known by all of her friends and family for her appalling lack of punctuality, and a member of the family commented “even in death she keeps us waiting!”

In his 2011 Renate Kamener Oration, Gareth Evans said this:

Renate Kamener was a remarkable woman, and I feel honoured and privileged to have been invited by her family to give this second Oration in her memory. I was first introduced to Renate and Bob, more decades ago than any us would now care to remember, by my then Melbourne University Law School colleague, and their fellow refugee from the South African apartheid regime, Julian Phillips, and it was in that context that I first became aware of the risks they had taken in opposing that regime, and of their passionate commitment against racism in any form and for human dignity and decency in every form.

He spoke movingly of Renate Kamener’s intense commitment to Israeli-Palestinian reconciliation, and of what he referred to as “a life of great and recognized service to humanity”.

Renate was born on 8th June, 1933, in Breslau, Germany.  As the Rabbi pointed out, “the mention of Germany in 1933 will immediately ring alarm bells for many of you as the year that Hitler became chancellor and began to put into practice his anti-Jewish rhetoric…”

Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism has a long history, but notoriously reached an appalling peak in Germany between 1933 and 1945.

Gareth Evans touched on this in his 2011 Oration.  He said:

As no-one here this evening needs reminding, least of all the Kamener family, who like so many others of you have contributed so much to the Australian community since you or your forebears fled the horrors in Europe of the 1930s and 40s, no crime in history has been more grotesque than the Nazi Holocaust, with its comprehensively and meticulously organized extermination of six million Jews.   Even if some other mass atrocity crimes, those of Stalin and Mao for a start, have involved even more unbelievably large numbers, none has more fundamentally demeaned our sense of common humanity.

I do not intend to rehearse the miserable history of anti-Semitism.  Its traces go back a very long way.  It is often overlooked that the document signed by King John at Runnymede on 15 June 1215 and later called Magna Carta contained several provisions which can only be understood as an expression of anti-Semitism.  Shakespeare’s plays reflect enduring anti-Semitism in Britain, and the trial of Alfred Dreyfus in 1894 was an expression of deep-seated anti-Semitism in France.  Incidentally, it is not widely remembered that the Vichy regime deported Alfred Dreyfus’ granddaughter Madeline.  She was gassed at Auschwitz in 1944.

Boat people

As most of you are aware, I have been greatly concerned about Australia’s mistreatment of refugees in recent years.  I know many of you have also been concerned, and perhaps for the same reasons.

The origins of that mistreatment can be traced back to the Tampa episode in 2001.  The MV Tampa went to the help of a small refugee boat, the Palapa.  Most of the people on the Palapa were terrified Hazaras from Afghanistan, fleeing the Taliban.  It is often overlooked that Hazaras from Afghanistan now and Rohingyas from Myanmar now are as likely to be genuine refugees as Jews from Germany in 1939.

The captain of the Tampa rescued the people from the Palapa them to Christmas Island: a speck of Australian sovereignty in the Indian Ocean.  Those 434 Hazaras escaped the Taliban, a regime so harsh that we saw fit to help the Americans blast it back to the Stone Age just a couple of months later.  But they marked the start of a campaign which, in recent years has become a policy of deterrence: a policy designed to make people think persecution at home is better than mistreatment by Australia.

When the Tampa entered Australian territorial waters off Christmas Island, John Howard called in the SAS, who took command of the bridge of the Tampa at gunpoint.

Then there was a stand-off.  The rescued Afghans were stuck, sweltering on the steel deck of the Tampa in the tropical sun.  The matter went to Court.  The case ran four or five days.  Judgment was reserved.  Then the judge delivered a decision: at 2.15 in the afternoon, Melbourne time, on 11 September 2001.  Ten hours later the attack on America took place.

It is a nice coincidence that this event in honour of Renate Kamener is being held 15 years, to the day, after the judgment in the Tampa litigation; on the 15th anniversary of the events which, more than anything else, triggered Islamophobia

The start of Islamophobia

After September 11, 2001, in public and political discourse, there were no longer terrorists, just Muslim terrorists; no boat people, just Muslim boat people.  And John Howard started calling boat people “illegal”.

The notion that 434 frightened, persecuted men, women and children constitute a threat to national sovereignty is so bizarre that it defies discussion.

The Coalition have persisted in calling boat people “illegal” ever since.  It is a lie.  When Abbott won government in 2013, “border control” became “border protection”.  It was not easy to watch an interview with Scott Morrison, when he was Immigration Minister, without hearing him talk about “illegals” and “border protection”.  (It was not easy to watch his interviews at all, disfigured as they were by his easy personal brand of hypocrisy and dishonesty). It is a matter of history that the Abbott government, whose leading figures were conspicuously Christian, were so dedicated to vilifying refugees, that they renamed the Department of Immigration and Citizenship: it is now the Department of Immigration and Border Protection.

But boat people do not threaten our borders in any sense, and we do not need to be protected from them.  But government propaganda, never contradicted decisively by the Labor party, has persuaded a significant percentage of the Australian public that we are being protected from dangerous criminals.

Most people, even the most empathetic, would not resist the idea that criminals should be sent to jail.  And if boat people are “illegal” then placing them in detention seems natural and reasonable.  It does not evoke a reaction of empathy.

The matter is different once you recognize that the people held in detention centres are not guilty of any offence.  It looks different when you see that boat people are held in detention for an indefinite time – for as long as it takes to resolve their claim for protection.  They may be jailed for months or years or perhaps even forever.  No-one can tell them in advance how long they will stay in detention.

What we do to boat people

When boat people arrive at Christmas Island, they have typically spent eight or 10 days on a rickety boat.  They have typically come from landlocked countries and have typically never spent time on the ocean.  Typically, they have had not enough to eat and not enough to drink.  Typically, they have had no opportunity to wash or to change their clothes.  Typically, they arrive distressed, frightened and wearing clothes caked in their own excrement.

They are not allowed to shower or to change their clothes before they are interviewed by an officer of the Immigration Department.  It is difficult to think of any decent justification for subjecting them to that humiliation.

When they arrive, any medical appliances they have will be confiscated and not returned:  spectacles, hearing aids, false teeth, prosthetic limbs, are all confiscated.  If they have any medications with them, those medications are confiscated and not returned.  According to doctors on Christmas Island, one person had a fulltime job of sitting in front of a bin popping pills out of blister packs for later destruction.

If they have any medical documentation with them, it is confiscated and not returned.  The result of all of this is that people with chronic health problems find themselves denied any effective treatment.  The results can be very distressing.  For example:  a doctor who worked on Christmas Island told me of a woman who had been detained there for some weeks and who was generally regarded as psychotic.  Her behaviour was highly erratic for reasons that no-one understood.  The consultation with this woman was very difficult because, although the doctor and the patient were sitting across a table from each other, they did not have a language in common.  The interpreter joined them by telephone from Sydney: about 5,300 kilometres away.  Eventually, the doctor worked out that the problem was that the woman was incontinent of urine.  She could not leave her cabin without urine running down her leg.  It was driving her mad.  When the doctor worked out that this was the cause of the problem, she asked the Department to provide incontinence pads.  The Department’s initial response was “we don’t do those”.  The doctor insisted.  The Department relented and provided four incontinence pads per day:  not enough, so that the woman needs to queue for more but the incontinence pads made a profound difference to her mood and behaviour.

In February 2014 Reza Barati was killed on Manus Island.  Initially, Australia said that he had escaped from the detention centre and was killed outside the detention centre.  Soon it became clear that he was killed inside the detention centre.  It took nearly five months before anyone was charged with the murder of Reza Barati.  Nobody has yet been brought to court.

Just a couple of weeks after Reza Barati was killed, I received a sworn statement from an eyewitness, Benham Satah.  The statement included the following:

“J … is a local who worked for the Salvation Army.  …  He was holding a large wooden stick.  It was about a metre and a half long … it had two nails in the wood.  The nails were sticking out …

When Reza came up the stairs, J … was at the top of the stairs waiting for him.  J … said ‘fuck you motherfucker’ J … then swung back behind his shoulder with the stick and took a big swing at Raisa, hitting him on top of the head.

J … screamed again at Reza and hit him again on the head.  Reza then fell on the floor …

I could see a lot of blood coming out of his head, on his forehead, running down his face.  His blood is still there on the ground.  He was still alive at this stage.

About 10 or 15 guards from G4S came up the stairs.  Two of them were Australians.  The rest were PNG locals.  I know who they are.  I can identify them by their face.  They started kicking Reza in his head and stomach with their boots.

Reza was on the ground trying to defend himself.  He put his arms up to cover his head but they were still kicking.

There was one local … I recognized him … he picked up a big rock … he lifted the rock above his head and threw it down hard on top of Reza’s head.  At this time, Reza passed away.

One of the locals came and hit him in his leg very hard … but Reza did not feel it.  This is how I know he was dead.

After that, as the guards came past him, they kicked his dead body on the ground …”

A short time later, Benham Satah was taken into the Wilson Security cabin in the detention centre.  Wilson Security provide the guard services on Manus and Nauru, and in your local park.   They are incorporated in Panama, presumably to avoid the inconvenience of paying Australian tax on the vast amounts they are paid by the Australian government.  The Wilson Security people tied Benham Satah to a chair and beat him up.  They told him that, unless he withdrew his witness statement, they would take him outside the camp, where he would be publicly raped by locals.

In 2015 I got an email from a health worker on Manus:

“…The situation as you can imagine is very grim. Around 80% of transferees suffering serious mental health issues. PNG staff are slowly being “trained” to take over various roles with mostly undesirable results. East Lorengau is not working. One refugee is lingering in hospital for over two weeks with undiagnosed stomach problems. One refugee doctor is suffering severe mental health issues….”

Here is an extract from a statement by a doctor who worked on Manus who has spent most of his  professional life working in the prison system in Australia:

“…On the whole, the conditions of detention at the Manus Island OPC are extremely poor. When I first arrived at the Manus Island OPC I was considerably distressed at what I saw, and I recall thinking that this must be similar to a concentration camp.

The detainees at the Manus Island OPC are detained behind razor wire fences, in conditions below the standard of Australian maximum-security prison.

My professional opinion is that the minimum medical requirements of the detained population were not being met. I have no reason to believe that the conditions of detention have improved since I ceased employment at the Manus Island OPC.

The conditions of detention at the Manus Island OPC appeared to be calculated to break the spirit of those detained in the Manus Island OPC. On a number of occasions the extreme conditions of detention resulted in detainees abandoning their claims for asylum and returning to their country of origin.

At the Manus Island OPC, bathroom facilities are rarely cleaned. There was a lot of mould, poor ventilation, and the structural integrity of the facilities is concerning.

No soap is provided to detainees for personal hygiene.

When detainees need to use the bathroom, it is standard procedure that they first attend at the guards’ station to request toilet paper. Detainees would be required to give an indication of how many ‘squares’ they will need. The maximum allowed is six squares of toilet paper, which I considered demeaning.

A large number of detainees continue to be in need of urgent medical attention.

Formal requests for medical attention are available to the detainees. The forms are only available in English. Many of the detainees do not have a workable understanding of English and the guards will not provide assistance.  …”

The recent release of several thousand files from the detention centre on Nauru provided a useful insight into what is happening  there.  The files revealed, among other things, something many of us have known all along: there have been hundreds of incidents of sexual assault, including child sexual assault.  The offences have been committed mostly by guards or by Nauruan locals.

But one document raised less concern than it should have.  It was a report that Save The Children had directed their staff that they should not spend longer than 5 weeks on Nauru at a time.   More than that would be a danger to their mental health.  We have held hundreds of men, women and children in detention on Nauru for more than three years.

But why?

So the question that needs to be asked is this: why has it been so easy to persuade the public that boat people are criminals who deserve to be locked away and mistreated so grotesquely that even children in detention harm themselves or kill themselves?

I fear that the true answer is Islamophobia.  Since 9/11 the Western world has been induced to believe that all boat people are Muslims and all Muslims are a threat to our way of life, our very existence.

The idea of people coming to Australia, without papers, without an invitation, causes astonishing anxiety.  It is generally overlooked that they come here looking for a place where they can live in safety.  Perhaps our reaction is a dim echo of 1788, when the arrival of uninvited boat people led to the rapid – and brutal – extinction of the existing culture.  But most Australians miss that little irony.

It is often overlooked that John Howard’s response to the Tampa was explicitly political: he took the position he did in order to win back some previous Liberal supporters who had drifted across to Pauline Hanson’s One Nation party.  Little did he realise that, just 15 years later, there would not be much difference between the Liberal party and One Nation.

The LNP response to boat people has gone through three distinct phases.

“illegals”

From the time of the Tampa episode in 2001, refugees were disparaged as “illegals”, “queue-jumpers” and people who had thrown their “Children Overboard”.  Each of those tags is false.  I mention this because, apart from anything else, it shows that the party which calls itself “Liberal” is perfectly happy to lie to the public in order to pursue policy objectives.

It is a lie to call refugees “illegals”.  The word suggests plainly that the person has committed an offence.  But it is not an offence to come to Australia, without papers, without a visa, without an invitation, and ask for protection.

The rhetoric of “illegals”, coupled with renaming the Department “Immigration and Border Protection” has been used skilfully, but dishonestly, by Abbott and Morrison and Turnbull and Dutton to convey a key dog-whistle message: that boat people are criminals from whom we need to be protected.  It is the crucial lie which makes it possible for Australia to reward the party that promises the greater cruelty to asylum seekers.  It is worth remembering the miserable fact that the 2013 Federal election campaign was the first (and I hope the only) time in this country in which both major parties tried to win political support by promising cruelty to a specific group of human beings.  If they had promised cruelty to animals, it might not have worked so well.

Unless we are really a country of people who would willingly mistreat innocent human beings simply because they have come asking for protection from persecution: as often as not, fleeing the same extremism we are fighting in the Middle East.

This should not be mistaken as a partisan attack on the Coalition: the Labor party has been conspicuously silent on the subject.  Both in opposition and in government, Labor has ducked the opportunity to correct the public debate by telling the truth: that boat people are not illegal, that there is no queue.  It is a painful irony that Labor has failed to make the very simple point that Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights gives every human being the right to seek asylum in any territory they can reach, and that Australia played a leading role in the creation of the UDHR, and that a Labor icon, Doc Evatt, presided over the General Assembly of the UN when the UDHR was entered into force.

But that was a time when Labor values were more than just a marketing campaign formulated by reference to populism, and completely untroubled by humanitarian considerations.

People smugglers

Next, the rhetoric swung to an attack on people smugglers.

Soon after Tony Abbott won the leadership of the coalition, he started criticising the Rudd government for the fact that boat people were arriving in Australia.  Rudd, who had introduced some well-designed reforms in July 2008, responded swiftly: he attacked the people smugglers.  In April 2009, Rudd said people smugglers were the “absolute scum of the earth” and should “rot in hell”.  He said that “People smugglers are engaged in the world’s most evil trade and they should all rot in jail…”

Rudd’s venom was a response to visible deaths of asylum seekers after an explosion sank a boat carrying asylum seekers off Australia’s north west coast.  It is possible that Rudd thought abusing asylum seekers was no longer a good look, but people smugglers were fair game.  He had overlooked that not all people smugglers can be conveniently fitted into the same miserable moral category.  He seems to have forgotten temporarily that his great moral hero, Dietrich Bonnhoeffer, was a people smuggler.  So too were Oskar Schindler and Gustav Schroeder.

Schindler’s activities are well-known, from Tom Keneally’s book and the film based on it.

It is worth recalling here what Schroeder did.  In May 1939, just months before the start of World War II, a ship called the St Louis left Hamburg, carrying 900 Jewish refugees.  Gustav Schroeder was its captain.  The St Louis was denied access to every port it approached, despite Schroeder’s efforts.  It got as far as Cuba, and was warned off the coast of Florida at gunpoint.  Schroeder took the St Louis back to Europe and put his cargo ashore in Antwerp.  After the low countries were occupied by the Nazis, more than half the refugees on the St Louis were captured and ultimately perished in concentration camps.

In light of the current political attitudes in Australia, it is worth noting that Captain Schroeder was a people smuggler.  Those countries who denied the St Louis the right to land might look back now and ask whether their decision was a policy success or a humanitarian tragedy.

The ferocity of attacks on people smugglers increased when Australians watched, on television, the terrible wreck of an asylum seeker boat on 15 December  2010.  It was a shocking sight, and significantly increased the political impact of attacking people smugglers.

Of course it is tragic when asylum seekers die in a desperate attempt to reach protection.  It is also tragic when they stay behind and are slaughtered.  The key difference is that, when they stay behind and become another statistic in the grim arithmetic of ethnic cleansing, we do not empathise with them; our conscience remains untouched.  When we learn that they have perished in an attempt to seek safety here, it seems different.

Why is that? Is it because they have tried to engage us? Is it because the ethics of proximity has begun to operate, so that we feel a heightened sense of responsibility for them? Is it because, seeing their last moments on the TV news, we understand their agonies, although perhaps not the desperation which drove them?  Is it simply because, in the unhealthy environment of current domestic politics, their fate is automatically drawn to our attention by politicians trying to exploit the occasion for their own political advantage?

If you had been a Jew in Germany in 1939, would it have been better to chance your arm with a people smuggler (Schindler, Bonnhoeffer, Schroeder…) or stay put and face a different risk? And which is more tragic: to die passively or die in an attempt to escape? One thing is certain: if the Taliban get you, you are just as dead as if you drown.

Rudd was later replaced by Gillard.  She reintroduced the Pacific Solution.  Then Rudd replaced Gillard, and he cranked up the Pacific Solution to its harshest form ever, as part of a policy of deterrence.  The 2013 Federal election disfigured Australian politics: it was the first election in which both major parties tried to woo voters by promising cruelty to a group of human beings (boat people).  If they had promised cruelty to animals, it might have been received differently.  Between them, during the 2013 election, Rudd and Abbott trashed whatever was left of Australia’s reputation.

By small degrees, sections of the public began to realise that people smugglers were not necessarily quite as wicked as the politicians had made out.  The prosecution of Ali al Jenabi, so well retold in Robin de Crespigny’s book the People Smuggler, drew attention to the simple, central fact that people smugglers provide a service which some desperate people need.  The existence of people smugglers does not create a demand for them.  When you are running for your life, you will take whatever services are available.

Drownings

The graphic scenes of horror as a boat smashed to bits on the coast of Christmas Island gave the Gillard government a new line of attack: the drowning excuse.  While it may seem superficially persuasive that we would take steps to prevent people drowning, we need to examine why people risk their lives at sea, and ask whether our concern about drowning is the true reason for our actions: it looks different when you realise that, in our ostensible concern about boat people drowning, we punish them if they don’t drown.

The following facts are uncontroversial:

  • Boat-people come here principally from Afghanistan, where the Hazaras are the target of Taliban genocide, and from Sri Lanka, where the Tamils are being persecuted in the wake of their failed liberation movement, and Rohingyas from Myanmar.  Those three groups have dominated boat-people numbers in the last few years.
  • Hazaras, Rohingyas and Tamils are really desperate in their bid for freedom.  Apart from any other consideration, a person has to be desperate to take the risks they in fact take in their attempt to reach safety.
  • Most boat-people who arrive in Australia end up being assessed as genuine refugees, legally entitled to our protection: over 90% of them are ultimately successful in their asylum claims.  This compares with a success rate of about 40% among asylum claims of people who arrive here by air on short term visas, such as business, tourist or student visas.  The different success rates are readily explained: the boat trip is dangerous: it is a mark of sincerity that a person takes the risks it involves.
  • Some of the boats carrying asylum seekers sink, and some of the refugees drown.  The number who have drowned is not clear, but it looks like about 2-3 per cent of them since 2000.

A person facing death or torture is not likely to be deterred by the prospect of being locked up in a detention centre, or even by the risk of drowning.  Desperate people will take desperate measures.  The experience of the Jews in the 1930s and the Vietnamese in the late 1970s tells us that.  Common sense and ordinary experience tell us that.  Over the years I have asked Hazaras I know personally, and who came here as boat-people, whether they had been aware of the risks before setting out.  Some did.  I asked them why they took the risk: they said that the Taliban represented a greater risk.  Others did not: they did not know where they were being taken.  For that group, deterrence is not a relevant consideration.

It is also significant that, at present, asylum seekers who get to Indonesia face the real prospect of being mistreated and jailed by the Indonesian authorities if they are caught.  In addition, they are not permitted to work or to send their children to school.  I suspect that most Australians faced with the same problem would choose the same solution: take a risk and get on a boat.

One of the strangest phenomena in Australian politics over the past decade is that we are apparently willing to revile and mistreat people who act exactly as we would if we had the misfortune to be in their shoes.

Islamophobia

So, we have a number of false explanations for conduct which, I hope, does not reflect the genuine character of this country.

But what is the true explanation?

A leading politician once said this:

“…after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the peacemakers for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.”

The person who said those words was Hermann Goering.  It is hard to contradict that statement; it is hard not to see it at work right now across the Western world.  It is a matter of real concern that anti-Islamic views are apparently driven by our political masters.

A survey in 2015  took a nationally representative sample of 1000 adult Australians.  It found that almost 70 per cent of Australians have a very low level of Islamophobia, about 20 per cent are undecided and only 10 per cent are highly Islamophobic.  The survey found that women tend to be more worried about terrorism than men. Where a respondent lived did not have a significant impact. People were more worried about terrorism if they were older, had lower levels of education, were unemployed, were employed in a non- professional role or if they supported the Liberal or National parties. They were less likely to be worried about terrorism if they had regular contact with Muslims, felt tolerant of migrants or had lower Islamophobia scores.

The survey concluded that most Australians display low levels of Islamophobia, and are willing to have Muslims in their family or friendship group (although they are even more welcoming of members of other major religions). There are pockets of prejudice and anxiety directed towards Muslims, for example among the aged and those facing financial insecurity. But the great majority of Australians in all states and regions are comfortable to live alongside Australian Muslims.

Islamophobia, it seems, is being driven from the top and for political advantage.

I do not want to be misunderstood: I deplore Muslim extremism, Hindu extremism, Christian extremism: I deplore extremism and terrorism of all kinds.  But I would not readily assume that a person fleeing extremism is an extremist.  I would not readily assume that a person fleeing terrorism is a terrorist.

It is no accident that repelling people who are seeking a safe place to live is now framed as an aspect of National Security.

It is no accident that, since 9/11, women who wear a head-scarf in public feel unsafe.

It is no accident that the news emphasises Islamic terrorism, in a way which we did not see during the 20th century, when duelling Christian sects committed appalling acts of terrorism in Northern Ireland.

And I think it is no accident that, in recent years, a number of Australian Jews have expressed their concern at the mistreatment of asylum seekers: they seem to recognise that Islamophobia looks worryingly like anti-Semitism.

And all Jews know where that can lead.

Books on Trials, Advocacy and Advocates

I have been collecting books on trials, advocates and advocacy for 25 years.
Many of the books listed below are out of print.

With patience, they can be found in second-hand book shops,
although many of them are only to be found at specialist book sellers.

Amazon Books www.amazon.com have a good range of in-print and recent out-of-print books.
Bibliofind www.bibliofind.com makes it easy to locate and order an incredible range of out-of-print books.
A book of Trials — Sir Travers Humphreys (Pan 1955)
A Book of Trials — Sir Travers Humphreys (William Heinemann 1953)
A Case to Answer — David Bevan (Wakefield 1994)
A Civil Action — Jonathan Harr (Random House 1996)
A Great Fall — Mildred Savage (Cassell 1970)
A History of the NSW Bar — JM Bennett (ed) (Law Book Coy 1969)
A History of the Supreme Court — Schwartz (Oxford University Press 1993)
A Lance for Liberty — JD Casswell QC (Harrap 1961)
A Lawyer Tells — PA Jacobs (Cheshire 1949)
A Man of Law’s Tale — MacMillan (Macmillan & Co 1953)
A Matter of Interpretation — Antonin Scalia (Princeton University Press 1997)
A Matter of Justice — Zander (Oxford University Press 1989)
A Matter of Speculation — Henry Cecil
A Most Unique Ruffian — O’Sullivan (Cheshire 1968)
A Multitude of Counsellors — Arthur Dean (Cheshire 1968)
A Murder in Paradise — Richard Gehman (Peter Davies 1955)
A Presumption of Innocence — Kennedy (Granada 1977)
A Radical Tory — Garfield Barwick
A Second Miscellany at Law — RE Megarry (Stevens & Sons 1973)
A Sparrow’s Flight — Lord Hailsham (Harper Collins 1990)
A Tangled Web — H Montgomery Hyde (Futura 1986)
A Train of Powder — Rebecca West(Macmillan 1955)
Above Renown (The Biography of Sir Henry Winneke) — Robert Coleman (McMillan 1988)
According to the Evidence — Gerald Abrahams (Cassell 1958)
Advocacy — Boon (Cavendish 1993)
Advocacy with Honour — John H Phillips (Law Book Co 1985)
Advocates — David Pannick (Oxford University Press 1992)
Advocates of the Golden Age — Lewis Broad (John Long Limited 1958)
Al Capone — Pasley (Faber & Faber 1966)
All Jangle and Riot — RG Hamilton (Professional Books Limited 1988)
An Almanac of Murder — Fenton Bresler (Severn House 1987)
An Introduction to Advocacy — Lee Stuesser (Law Book Co 1993)
An Ordinary Man — Alexander McLeod-Lindsay (Hale & Iremonger 1984)
Anatomy of a Jury — Wishman (Penguin 1987)
Anatomy of a Trial — Morrill (CCH 1968)
Arabinesque-at-Law — Megarry (Wildy & Sons 1969)
Aspects of Murder — TCH Jacobs (Stanley Paul 1956)
At the End of the Day — Viscount Maugham (William Heinemann 1954)
Attorney for the Damned — Arthur Weinberg (Macdonald 1957)
Auschwitz — Milklos Nyiszli (Arcade 1993)
Auschwitz in England — Hill and Williams (Stein & Day 1965)
Australian Criminal Trial Directions — Tilmouth and Glissan (Butterworth 1998)
Back View — Morris (Peter Davies 1960)
Barwick — David Marr (George Allen & Unwin 1980)
Behind The Bar — A.E. Bowker (Staples 1951)
Bench and Bar — Bigelow (Harper & Brothers 1871)
Bernard Spilsbury — Douglas Browne and EV Tullett (Harrap 1951)
Bernard Spilsbury — Douglas G Browne and EV Tullett (George Harrap 1951)
Beyond Reasonable Doubt — David Yallop (Corgi 1995)
Beyond Reasonable Doubt — Hawkins (ABC 1977)
Beyond Terrorism — Jenny Hocking (Allen & Unwin1993)
Blind Justice — Robin Bowles (Sue Hines/Allen &B Unwin 1998)
Blood on the Scales — Leslie Hale (Jonathon Cape 1960)
Bloody Jeffreys: the Hanging Judge —Milne-Tyte (Andre Deutsch 1989)
Blue Murder — Ben Hills (Sun Books 1989)
Bluff’s Guide to the Bar — St John Lucas (Methuen 1911)
Books in the Dock — C H Rolph (Andre Deutsch 1969)
Brandeis and Frankfurter: a Dual Biography — Baker (Harper & Row 1984)
Cameos of Crime — M O’Sullivan (Jackson and O’sullivan 1935)
Carson — H Montgomery Hyde (Heinemann 1953)
Case for the Prosecution – Biography of Sir A Bodkin— Jackson Arthur Barke 1962)
Cases in Court — Hastings (Pan 1953)
Cases in Court — Sir Patrick Hastings (Heinemann 1949)
Cases that Changed the Law — Montgomery Hyde (William Heinemann 1951)
Cash for Comment — Rob Johnson (Pluto Press 2001)
Celebrated Trials: The Archer-Shee case — Montagu (David & Charles 1974)
Cell 2455 Death Row — Caryl Chessman (Longmans Green 1956)
Chancellor Thurlow — Robert Gore-Browne (Hamish Hamilton 1953)
Cheerful Yesterdays — Alpers (Whitcombe & Tombs 1928)
Clarence Darrow — Arthur & Lila Weinberg (Putnam 1980)
Clarence Darrow for the Defence— Irving Stone (Garden City Publishing 1943)
Clarence Darrow on Capital Punishment — Justice Seymour Simon (intro) (1001 Chicago Historical Bookworks)
Classic Crimes — Roughead (Cassell & Co 1951)
Classics of the Courtroom — (Professional Education Group)
Clues That Spelled Guilty — Leonard Gribble (John Long 1961)
Codename Iago — John Friedrich (Heinemann 1991)
Column of Infamy — Manzoni (OUP 1964)
Comments on Cain — Tennyson Jesse (Heinemann 1948)
Comments on Cain — Tnnyson Jesse (Heinemann 1948)
Communication and Litigation — Janice Schuetz and Kathryn Snedaker (Southern Illinois University Press 1988)
Compulsion — Meyer Levin (Shakespeare Head Press 1957)
Confessions of an Uncommon Attorney— Hine (JM Dent & Sons 1945)
Contempt of Court — Alfred Hinds (Bodley Head 1966)
Corporate Cannibals — Ryan & Burge (Heinemann 1992)
Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry — John Braithwaite (Routledge and Keegan Paul 1984)
Courtroom — Quentin Reynolds (Victor Gollancz 1950)
Courtroom Crusaders — Mark Litwak (William Morrow & Co 1989)
Courtroom USA 1 — Furneaux (Penguin 1962)
Courtroom USA 2 — Furneaux (Penguin 1963)
Courts on Trial — Frank (Princeton University Press 1949)
Crime Documentaries #2: Hoolhouse— Rupert Furneaux (Stevens & Sons 1960)
Crime for the Connoisseur — Sparrow (Leslie Frewin 1974)
Crime Has Its Heroes — Montgomery Hyde (Constable 1976)
Criminal Days — Travers Humphreys (Hodder & Stoughton 1946)
Criminal Justice — Rene Weis (Penguin 1988)
Criminal Law Advocacy — Tilmouth & Pengelley ed (Wakefield 1986)
Criminal Trials vol 2 – The Gunpowder Plot — (Charles Knight 1885)
Cross Examination – Science and Techniques — Pozner and Dodd (Michie 1993)
Cross-examination in Criminal Trials— Stone (Butterworths 1988)
Cross-examination of witnesses — Cornelius (Bobbs-Merrill 1929)
Curiosities of Law and Lawyers— Croake James (Sampson Low Marston 1882)
Curran’s Speeches — Thomas Davis (ed) (James Duffy ?1890)
Day in Court — Francis L Wellman (MacMillan 1910)
Days of Judgment — Isobel V Morin (Millbrook Press 1995)
D-Days at Dayton — edited by Jerry R Tomkins (Louisiana State University 1965)
Death Cell at Darlinghurst — Blackwell (John Long 1970)
Death Dealer — Rudolph Hoess (Da Capo press 1996)
Defence Counsel — Patrick Tennyson (Hill of Content 1975)
Den of Thieves — James Stewart (Touchstone; 1991)
Devil Child — Dawkins and Higgins (St Martins Press 1989)
Devils Advocate — Roth and Roth (Nolo Press 1989)
Discoveries in the Statute Book — Fay (Sweet & Maxwell 1939)
Disorder in the Court — Dorsen and Friedman (Pantheon 1973)
Doctor Crippen — Vance (Brown Watson ?1950)
Double Dealer — Peter Watson (Hutchinson 1983)
Dr Watson’s Casebook — Watson (Condor 1944)
Dramas of the Dock — Guy BH Logan (Stanley Paul 1930?)
Dramas of the Law — Horace Wyndham (Hutchinson 1936)
Dramatic Days at the Old Bailey — Charles Kingston (Stanley Paul c1930)
Due Process — Williams (Victor Gollancz 1961)
Duty and Art in Advocacy — Hilbery (Stevens & Sons 1959)
Earl Warren — White (Oxford University Press 1982)
Easing the Passing — Patrick Devlin (The Bodley Head (1985)
Eichmann In Jerusalem — Hanah Arendt (Viking Press 1964)
Eight Studies in Justice — Smith-Hughes (Cassell & Co 1953)
Encyclopaedia of Modern Murder — Wilson and Seaman (Pan 1989)
Encyclopaedia of Murder — Colin Wilson and Patricia Pitman (Pan 1964)
English Courts of Law — Hanbury
English Treason Trials — CGL Du Cann (Frederick Muller 1964)
Essay and Excursions in Law — Russell (Law Book Company 1929)
Evatt – a Life — Peter Crockett (Oxford University Press 1993)
Eve was Framed — Kennedy (Vintage 1993)
Evidence and Advocacy — WAN Wells (Butterworths 1988)
Evidence and Advocacy (3rd Ed)— Edited by Peter Murphy (Blackstone Press 1990)
Evil Angels — Bryson
Fair Trial — Richard B Morris (Macdonald 1953)
Famous Advocates and their Speeches— Kelly (Sweet and Maxwell 1921)
Famous American Trials — Bechhofer Roberts (Jarrolds 1933)
Famous and Infamous Cases — Patrick Hastings (Heinemann 1950)
Famous Australasian Trials — Tom Gurr & HH Cox (Frederick Muller 1958)
Famous Australian Trials — PA Jacobs (Robertson & Mullens 1943)
Famous Court Cases — Atkinson (ed) (Fairfax 1987)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 2 — Furneaux (Odhams 1955)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 2 — Furneaux (Roy; New York)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 3 — Furneaux (Roy; New York)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 4 — Furneaux (Roy; New York)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 5 — Furneaux (Roy; New York)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 6 — Furneaux (Odhams 1960)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 6 — Furneaux (Roy; New York)
Famous Criminal Cases vol 7 — Furneaux (Odhams 1962)
Famous Edinburgh Crimes — Macdonald (Oliver and Boyd 1953)
Famous Judges and their Trials — Leonard Gribble (John Long Limited 1957)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of AA Rouse — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of AG Mason — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of Harry Thaw — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of Jim the Penman (James Townsend Saward) — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of Norman Thorne — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of Podmore — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trial Series: The Trial of Professor Webster — (Geoffrey Bles London)
Famous Trials — Birkenhead (Hutchinson ?1930)
Famous Trials — Edited Hodge Selected by John Mortimer (Penguin 1984)
Famous Trials 10 — Montgomery Hyde (Penguin 1964)
Famous Trials 3 — Hodge (Penguin 1950)
Famous Trials 5 — Hodge (Penguin )
Famous Trials 6 — Hodge (Penguin )
Famous Trials 9 — Montgomery Hyde (Penguin 1964)
Famous Trials of History — Edited by Lord Birkenhead (Hutchinson & Co)
Famous Trials of Marshall Hall — Edward Marjoribanks (Penguin 1950)
Famous Trials Series: Patrick Herbert Mahon — Edgar Wallace (Charles Scribner’s Sons 1928)
Famous Trials vol 7 — Montgomery Hyde
Famous Trials vol 8 — Hodge (Penguin 1963)
Famous Trials: 1 — Hodge (Penguin)
Famous Trials: 2 — Hodge (Penguin)
Famous Trials: 3 — Hodge (Penguin)
Famous Trials: 4 — Hodge (Penguin)
Famous Trials: Cases That Made History —Frank McLynn (Andromeda 1995)
Famous Trials: Roger Casement — H Montgomery Hyde (Penguin 1964)
Fatal Justice — Jerry Allen Potter & Fred Bost (Norton 1997)
FE Smith First Earl of Birkenhead— John Campbell (Pimlico 1983)
Fifty Famous Trials — Raby (Washington Law Book Co 1937)
Final Verdict — Adele Rogers St John (Jonathon Cape 1963)
Five Famous Trials — Maurice Moiseiwitsch (With Commentaries by Lord Birkett) (William Heinemann 1962)
For Lawyers and Others — Theo Mathew (William Hodge 1938)
For the Defence — Lloyd Paul Stryker (Staples Press 1949)
For the Defence — Marjoribanks (Macmillan 1930)
For The Defense — F. Lee Bailey with John Greenya (Athenaeum 1975)
Forensic Psychology — Lionel Haward
Forensic Success — ST Uff (Butterworth 1934)
Forgotten Crimes — JW Poynter (Selwyn and Blount 1928)
Forty Years of Murder — Simpson (Granada 1980)
Fossil in the Sandstone — Sir Kevin Anderson (Spectrum 1986)
Frank Galbally for the Defence: The Krope Trial — Peter Fitzgerald (Unicorn Books 1981)
Frauds — Aldington (Heinemann 1957)
Fraudsters — Gilbert (Constable & Co 1986)
Fred and Rose — Howard Sounes (Warner 1995)
Freedom and the Court — Abraham (Oxford University Press 1982)
Freedon and the Court — Henry J Abraham & Barbara A Perry (Oxford University Press, New York, 1998)
Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns— John Wheeler-Bennett
From Barbarism to Verdict — Justin Fleming (Angus and Robertson 1994)
Fundamentals of Trial Techniques — Mauet and McCrimmon (Longman 1993)
Galbally — Frank Galbally (Viking 1989)
Galbally for the Defence — Frank Galbally Viking 1989)
Gatton Man — Merv Lilley (McPhee Gribble 1994)
Gentlemen at Crime — Mackenzie (Elek 1956)
Gentlemen of the Jury — Francis Wellman (Macmillan 1924)
Gideon’s Trumpet — Anthony Lewis (Bodley Head 1964)
Goodbye Lizzie Borden — Sullivan (Penguin 1989)
Grand Deception — Alexander Klein (ed) Faber & Faber 1956)
Grand Deception — Klein (ed) (Faber & Faber ?1960)
Grand Larceny — Sir Frank McKinnon (Oxford University Press 1937)
Great American Trials — Edward W Knappman (New England Publishing 1994)
Great Cases of Sir Henry Curtis Bennett — Edward Grice (Hutchinson & Co 1937)
Great Commercial Disasters — Winkworth (Macmillan 1980)
Great Courtroom Battles — Rubenstein (ed) (1973)
Great Issues in Private Courts — Furneaux (William Kimber 1946)
Great Justices of the Supreme Court— Nathan Aaseng (Oliver Press 1992)
Great Scandals of Cheating at Cards— John Welcome (Horizon 1964)
Haldane — Maurice (Faber and Faber 1937)
Harris’s Hints on Advocacy — Harris (Stevens & Sons 1938)
Hatred Ridicule or Contempt — Joseph Dean (Constable & Co 1954)
Hear the Other Side — Lane (Butterworths 1985)
Hold Your Tongue — Ernst and Lindey (Methuen 1936)
Horatio Bottomley — ST Felstead (John Murray 1936)
Hortensius: An Historical Essay on the Office and Duties of an Advocate — William Forsyth (John Murray; 1879)
Hunting Humans — Leyton (Penguin 1986)
In Brief Authority — Biddle (Doubleday 1962)
In Cold Blood — Capote (Hamish Hamilton 1966)
In Court and out of Court — Ernest Bowen-Rowlands (Hutchinson 1925)
In God’s Name — David Yallop (Jonathon Cape 1984)
In the Belly of the Beast — Jack Henry Abbott (Vintage Books 1991)
In the Court of Public Opinion — Alger Hiss (Knopf 1957)
Innocence Regained — Young (Federation Press 1989)
Innocents: How Justice Failed Stefan Kiszko and Lesley Molseed — Jonathan Rose, Steve Panter and Trevor Wilkinson (Forth Estate 1997)
Inside Out — Dennis B Levine and William Hoffer (Putnams 1991)
Isaac Isaacs — Zelman Cowen (Oxford University Press 1967)
Isabel Carter (Lansdowne Press 1970) — Rosanove
Itambu — Selby (Currawong Press 1963)
Jesting Pilate and Other Papers and Addresses — Sir Owen Dixon (collected by Judge Woinarski) (Law Book Company 1965)
Jim Fisk – The Career of an Improbable Rascal — WA Swanberg (Longmans 1960)
Judges — David Pannick (Oxford University Press 1987)
Judges — Jackson (Athanaeum 1974)
Judges of Yesterday — Jacobs (Robertson & Mullens 1924)
Judgment Reserved — Slesser (Hutchinson)
Judicial Dramas — Horace Wyndham (T Fisher Unwin 1927)
Justice at Nuremberg — Conot (Harper and Row 1983)
Justice at Work — Joyce (Pan 1952)
Kenealy and the Tichborne Case — Michael Roe (MUP 1974)
Kidnap – the Story of the Lindbergh Case — Waller (Dial Press 1961)
Kill all the Lawyers? — Kornstein
Kings Counsel — Wild and Curtis-Bennett (Macmillan 1938)
Landmarks in the Law — Denning (Butterworths 1984)
Larrikin Crook — Anderson (Jacaranda Press 1971)
Law and Life — GD Roberts QC (WH Allen 1964)
Law and other Things — Macmillan (Cambridge University Press 1938)
Law in Action — Edited by Amicus Curiae with introduction by Roscoe Pound (Crown Publishers 1947)
Law Life and Letters — Birkenhead (Hodder & Stoughton 1927)
Law; Life and Letters — ESPHaynes (Heinemann 1936)
Laws and Flaws — Edward Iwi
Lawyer and Litigant in England — Megarry (Stevens 1962)
Lawyers Gems and Money — Paul Conroy (Information Australia, 2000)
Lawyer’s Lawyer — Harbaugh (Oxford University Press 1973)
Leaves From My Library — Denning (Butterworths 1986)
Leaves of a Life — Montagu Williams (Macmillan & Co 1891)
Leonski — Andrew Mallon
Let Him Have It Chris — Trow (Constable 1990)
Libels Lampoons and Litigants — Fricke (Hutchinson 1984)
Life and Limb — Robert Wallace Doubleday 1955)
Life of Chancellor Eldon — Horace Twiss (John Murray 1844)
Life of Sir Frank Lockwood — Birrell (Thomas Nelson)
Life Plus Ninety-nine Years — Nathan F Leopold Jr (Greenwood Press 1957)
Life Sentence — Hartley Shawcross (Constable 1995)
Lionel Murphy: A Political Biography — Jenny Hocking (Cambridge University Press 1997)
Lives of the Chief Justices — Lord John Campbell
Lives of the Lord Chancellors vol I — RFV Heuston (Clarendon Press 1964)
Lives of the Lord Chancellors vol II — RFV Heuston (Clarendon Press 1987)
Lives of the Lord Chancellors vols 1 – 10 — Lord Campbell (Frederick D Linn 1880)
Lord Advocate’s Diary — Stott (Aberdeen University Press 1991)
Lord Atkin — Geoffrey Lewis (Butterworths 1983)
Lord Birkenhead — Ephesian (Bechofer Roberts) (Mills & Boon 1926)
Lord Bowen — Cunningham (John Murray 1897)
Lord Cochrane’s Trial — Atlay (Smith; Elder 1897)
Lord Darling and His Famous Trials — Evelyn Graham (Hutchinson & Co 1931)
Lord Denning – a Life — Freemen (Hutchinson 1993)
Lord Goddard — Arthur Smith (Weidenfeld Nicholson 1959)
Lord Goddard His Career and Cases — Grimshaw and Jones (Allan Wingate 1957)
Lord Justice Birkett — Dennis Bardens (Robert Hale 1962)
Lord Macnaughton’s Judgments — Butterworths 1951
Lord Reading — CJC Street (Geoffrey Bles 1928)
Lord Reading – The Life of Rufus Isaacs — H Montgomery Hyde (Heinemann 1967)
Lord Reading and His Cases — Derek Walker-Smith (Chapman & Hall 1934)
Marshall Hall — Nina Warner Hooke and Gil Thomas (Arthur Barker 1966)
Martin Cash — Martin Cash (Oldham, Beddome & Meredith 1940)
Max D Steuer; Trial Lawyer — Aron Steuer (Random House, 1950)
Max D Steuer; Trial Lawyer — Aron Steuer (Random House; 1950)
Max Steuer — Boyer (Greenberg 1932)
May it Please Your Honour — Wilfred Blacket KC (Cornstork Publishing 1927)
May it Please Your Lordship — ES Turner (Michael Joseph 1971)
McElhaney’s Trial Notebook — James McElhaney (ABA 1994)
Memories of Famous Trials — Burnaby (Sisley’s Ltd ?1890)
Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil — Richard Berendt (Vintage 1995)
Miscarriages of Justice — Bob Woffenden (Hodder & Stoughton 1987)
Miscellany at Law — RE Megarry (Stevens & Sons 1955)
More Anecdotes of Bench and Bar — Engelbach (Grant Richards 1915)
More Famous Trials — Edited by Lord Birkenhead (Hutchinson 1938)
Mr Justice Avory — Gordon Lang (Herbert Jankins 1935)
Mr Justice J W Willis — Behan (Behan 1979)
Mr Justice McCardie — George Pollock (John Lane the Bodley Head 1934)
Murder at the Villa Madeira — Napley (Weidenfeld and Nicholson 1988)
Murder Not Proven? — Jack House (Penguin 1989)
Murder Trials — Cicero (Dorset 1975)
Murder with a Double Tongue — Peter Shankland and Michael Havers (William Kinber 1978)
Murderers’ Moon — Conrad Phillips (Arthur Baker 1956)
My Learned Friends — Adam Raphael (WH Allen 1989)
My Life in Court — Nizer (Heinemann 1962)
My Secret Diary of the Dreyfus Case — Maurice Paleologue
My Trial — Stonehouse (Wyndham 1976)
Natural Logic; Judicial Proof and Objective Facts — WAN Wells (Federation Press 1994)
Nazi Trials: A Soldier’s Story of Terror — James Matthew Moruzzi (CoralGables Publishing 1998)
Nazi War Criminals — Earle Rice Jr (The Holocaust Library 1998)
Ned Herring — Stuart Sayers (Hyland House 1980)
Norman Birkett — H Montgomery Hyde (Hamish Hamilton 1964)
Not Guilty — Judge Jerome Frank (Gollancz 1957)
Not Without Prejudice — Hewart (Hutchinson 1937)
Notable American Trials – They Escaped the Hangman — Francis X Busch (Arco 1957)
Notable American Trials: Enemies of the State — Francis X Busch (Arco 1957)

Notable American Trials: Prisoners at the Bar — Francis X Busch (Bobbs Merrill 1952)
Notable British Trials – Bounty Mutineers — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials – Greenwood — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials – Griffiths — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials – James Stewart — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials – Merrett — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials – Monson — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials – Morrison — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials – Muller — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials – Peace and Habron — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials – Rattenbury and Stoner — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials – Royal Mail Case — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials – Samuel Herbert Dougal — (William Hodge & Co 1928)
Notable British Trials: Adelaide Bartlett — Hall (William Hodge 1927)
Notable British Trials: Adolph Beck — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Armstrong — (William Hodge 1952)
Notable British Trials: Barnes — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Benjamin Knowles — (William Hodge & Co) (Court of Ashanti; Kumasi)
Notable British Trials: Browne and Kennedy — (William Hodge 1952)
Notable British Trials: Burke & Hare — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Craig & Bentley — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Cream — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials: Dickman — William Hodge & Co
Notable British Trials: Dougal — (William Hodge 1952)
Notable British Trials: Dr Lamson — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Evans and Christie — (William Hodge 1957)
Notable British Trials: Frederick Nodder — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: George Chapman — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: George Joseph Smith — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: HH Crippen — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: James Camb — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Jeannie Donald — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: JG Haigh — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Lamson — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Ley & Smith — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Lord Lovat — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Madeleine Smith — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Mrs McLachlan — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Neville Heath — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Oscar Slater — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Oscar Wilde — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Patrick Carraher — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Rattenbury and Stoner — Tennyson Jesse (William Hodge 1950)
Notable British Trials: Robert Wood — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Roger Casement — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Ronald True — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Seddon — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Smethurst — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: Straffen — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: The Baccarat Case — (William Hodge 1952)
Notable British Trials: The Bloody Assizes — (Hodge & Co 1929)
Notable British Trials: The Veronica Trial — (William Hodge 1952)
Notable British Trials: Wainwright — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: William Gardiner — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable British Trials: William Joyce — (William Hodge & Co)
Notable Cross-examinations — EW Fordham (Constable & Co1951)
Notable Scottish Trials – Glasgow Bank Directors — William Hodge & Co
Notable Trials #24 — Richard Singer
Noted Murder Mysteries — Philip Curtin (Belloc Lowndes) (Simkin Marshall Hamilton Kent 1914)
Nuremberg Diary — Gilbert (Eyre & Spottiswoode 1948)
Nuremberg: A Nation on Trial — Werner Maser (Scribner 1979)
Nuremberg: Infamy on Trial — Joseph E Persico (Viking 1994)
Offcuts from a Legal Literary Life — Nicholas Hasluck
Old Bailey Trial Series: Ley & Smith — C. E. Bechhofer-Roberts (Jarrolds 1947)
On Circuit — MacKinnon (Cambridge University Press 1941)
On Liberty — Mill (John W Parker 1859)
On the Examination of Witnesses — Wrottesley (Sweet & Maxwell 1931)
On the Witness Stand — Munsterberg (Clark Boardman 1930)
On Trial — Dickler (Gramercy 1993)
On Trial — Norman Sheresky (Viking Press 1977)
On Trial at Nuremberg — Airey Neave (Little Brown 1978)
On Trial at Nuremberg — Airey Neave (Little, Brown 1978)
Once Upon a Time in Computerland — Littman (Simon & Schuster 1990)
One Hundred Years of Medical Murder — John Camp (Triad/Granada 1983)
Orr — W.H.C Eddy (Jacaranda 1961)
Oscar Slater — Toughill (Canongate 1993)
Oscar Wilde and Myself — Lord Alfred Douglas (John Long 1914)
Oscar Wilde: Three Times Tried — (Frank & Cecil Palmer 1914)
Oxford Companion to the US Supreme Court — Hall (Oxford University Press 1992)
Pageantry of the Law — James Derriman (Eyre & Spottiswoode 1955)
Palm Court — Robert Overton (Hamish Hamilton 1979)
Past Master — Lloyd Davies (Artbook 1980)
Paths to the Gallows —
Persuading People — Cockroft (Macmillan 1992)
Petiot: Victim of Chance — Seth (Hutchinson 1963)
Plutocrats of Crime — Percy Smith (Muller 1960)
Poison and Adelaide Bartlett — Yseult Bridges (Macmillan 1962)
Portraits of the chief Justices of NSW — JM Bennett (John Ferguson 1977)
Presumed Guilty — Michael Mansfield (Mandarin 1993)
Profiles in Murder — Oscar R Schmalzbach (Hodder and Stoughton 1971)
Proof of Fact in Criminal Trials — Stone (Green 1984)
Proved Innocent — Conlon (Penguin 1990)
R v Louis Riel — Morton (Legal Classics Library 1992)
Radical Lawyers — Black (ed) (Avon books 1971)
Random Recollections — AC Hanlon QC (Otago Daily Press 1939)
Ratten The Web of Circumstance — Molomby
Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg — Bradley F Smith (Andre Deutsch 1977)
Reasonable Doubts — Alan Dershowitz (Simon & Schuster 1996)
Recollections of Bench and Bar — Alverstone (Edward Arnold 1914)
Red Barrister — Peter Cook
Reflections without Mirrors — Nizer (Berkley 1978)
Relics of an Uncommon Attorney — Hine (JM Dent & Sons 1951)
Reminiscences of Sir Henry Hawkins — Hawkins (ed Richard Harris) (Thomas Nelson 1904)
Reminiscences of Thirty Years Residence in New South Wales and Victoria — R. Therry (facsimile edition, Royal Australian Historical Society)
Reserved Judgment — Tudor Rees (Frederick Muler 1956)
Reversal of Fortune — Alan Dershowitz (Notable Trials Library 1986)
Reverse Your Verdict — Brome (Hamish Hamilton 1971)
Richard Burdon Haldane – an Autobiography — Haldane (Hodder & Stoughton 1931)
Richard Minear (Princeton 1971) — –
Rigby — Pritchard (Mackay 1968)
Roads to Ruin — E.S. Turner (Michael Joseph 1950)
Roche v Adams — Adams (Jonathon Cape 1984)
Roger Casement — Inglis (Coronet 1973)
Romantic Trials of Three Centuries — Hugh Childers (John Lane The Bodley Head 1912)
Rufus Choate: The Law and Civic Virtue — Jean V Matthews (Temple University Press 1980)
Rufus Isaacs — GR Isaacs (Putnam’s 1940)
Rufus Isaacs — Stanley Jackson (Cassell 1936)
Ruth Ellis: A Case of Diminsihed Responsibility — Laurence Marks and Tony van den Bergh (MacDonald and Jane’s 1977)
Saint – With Red Hands — Yseult Bridges (Jarrolds 1954)
Samuel Walker Griffith — Joyce (University of Queensland Press 1984)
Scandal ’63 (A Study of the Profumo Affair) — Clive Irving and others (Heinemann 1963)
Scintillae Juris — Mr Justice Darling (1877)
Scotch Verdict — Lillian Faderman (Quartet 1985)
Scotch Verdict — Lillian Faderman (Quartet Books 1983)
Scottsboro Boy — Patterson & Conrad (Victor Gollancz 1951)
Serjeant Ballantine’s Experiences — Ballantine (Richard Bentley 1890)
Shadow of the Noose — Richard Cooper (Penguin 1989)
Should Women Hang? — Bernard O’Donnell (WH Allen 1956)
Singapore Samurai — Penrod Dean
Sir Charles Lowe — Newman Rosenthal (Robertson & Mullens 1968)
Sir Frank Lockwood — Augustine Birrell (Smith Elder 1898)
Sir Harry Gibbs – Without Fear or Favour — Joan Priest (Scribblers 1995)
Sir Isaac Isaacs — Max Gordon (Heinemann 1963)
Sir John Latham and Other Papers — Zelman Cowen (MUP 1965)
Sir Patrick Hastings His Life and Cases — Montgomery Hyde (Heinemann 1960)
Sir Richard Muir — ST Felstead (John Lane The Bodley Head Limited 1927)
Sir Travers Humphreys — Bechhofer Roberts (John Lane The Bodley Head Limited 1936)
Sir Travers Humphreys — Douglas G Browne (Harrap 1960)
Sisters of Cain — Gribble (John Long 1972)
Six Great Advocates — Birkett (Penguin 1961)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 1 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 10 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 2 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 3 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 4 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 5 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 6 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 7 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 8 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Cases vol 9 — Winkle (Warren S Ayers 1956)
Sixty Famous Trials — Huson (Daily Express 1938)
Skill In Trials — JW Donovan (Williamson Law Book Co 1891)
Some of My Life — Irving Younger
Speeches of Lord Birkenhead — Birkenhead
Stage and Bar — George Pleydell Bancroft (Faber and Faber 1939)
Stains on a White Collar — Grabosky & Sutton (Hutchinson 1989)
Star Chamber Stories — Elton (Methuen 1958)
State Trials: Treason and Libel — Thomas (ed) (Routledge & Kegan Paul 1972)
Stinie — Rose (Penguin 1989)
Stories of Famous Conspiracies — Gribble (Arthur Barker 1968)
Stories of Famous Conspirators — Gribble (Arthur Barker 1968)
Strangers on a Bridge — Donovan (Secker & Warburg 1964)
Streetfighter in the Courtroom — Garry and Goldberg (Dutton 1977)
Suddenly at the Priory — Williams (Cardinal 1976)
Suddenly at the Priory — Williams (Penguin 1989)
Suffer the Children — Knightly; Evans; Potter; Wallace (Sunday Times Insight Team) (Andre Deutsch 1979)
Supreme Folly — Jones and Uelman (Harper Collins 1991)
Tact in Court — Donovan (Sweet and Maxwell 1915)
Take the Witness — Cohn and Chisholm (Garden City Publishing 1934)
Taken on Oath — Faine (Federation Press 1992)
Tales of the Criminous — William Roughead (Cassell 1956)
Ten Rillington Place — Ludovic Kennedy (Gollancz 1961)
That Disreputable Firm — Michael Cannon (MUP 1998)
That Nice Miss Smith — Nigel Morland (Souvenir Press 1957)
The Accusing Ghost or Justice for Casement — Noyes (Gollancz 1957)
The Airman and the Carpenter (The Lindbergh Case and the Framing of Richard Hauptmann) — Ludovic Kennedy (Collins 1985)
The Amendments to the Constitution — George Anastaplo (Johns Hopkins Unversity Press 1995)
The American Road to Nuremberg — Bradley Smith (Hoover Institution Press 1982)
The Anatomy of a Constitutional Law Case — Westin (MacMillan 1958)
The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials — Telford Taylor (Bloomsbury; 1993)
The Archer-Shee Case — Ewen Montagu (David & Charles 1974)
The Archer-Shees against the Admiralty — Rodney M Bennett (Robert Hale 1973)
The Art of Advocacy — Stryker (Simon & Schuster 1954)
The Art of Cross-Examination — Francis L Wellman (Macmillan 1903 and Collier 1962)
The Art of the Advocate — Richard Du Cann (Penguin 1964)
The Autobiography of Sir Patrick Hastings — Hastings (William Heinemann 1948)
The Bench and Bar of England — JA Strahan (William Blackwood 1919)
The Best We Can Do — Bedford (Penguin 1961)
The Binghams of Louisville — David Leon Chandler (Crown 1987)
The Bold Riders — Trevor Sykes (Allen & Unwin 1994)
The Boston Strangler — Gerold Frank (Jonathon Cape 1967)
The Brethren — Woodward (Simon & Schuster 1979)
The Camden Town Murders — Sir David Napley (Weidenfeld and Nicholson 1987)
The Canning Enigma — John Treherne (Jonathon Cape 1989)
The Case that will not Die — Herbert Ehrmann (WH Allen 1970)
The charge is Murder — Vince Kelly ((Rigby 1965)
The Chequered Lady — Phil Kafcaloudes (Federation Press 1993)
The Chief — Robert Jackson (Harrap 1959)
The City of London (vol II) — David Kynaston (Chatto and Windus 1995)
The City of London 1890-1914 — David Kynaston (Chatto & Windus 1995)
The Claimant — Michael Gilbert (Constable 1957)
The Cleveland Street Scandal — Montgomery Hyde (Harford 1976)
The Complete Jack the Ripper — Rumbelow (Penguin 1988)
The Crime and Punishment of IG Farben — Borkin (The Free Press 1978)
The Cuckoo’s Egg — Stoll (Pan 1991)
The Deceivers — Egon Larsen (John Baker 1966)
The Defence Never Rests — F Lee Bailey (Stein & Day 1971)
The Dissenting Opinions of Justice Holmes — Lief (Vanguard Press 1929)
The Double Dealers — Alexander Klein (JB Lippincott 1958)
The Drama of the Law — Parry
The Dreyfus Affair — Kayser (Conici Friede 1931)
The Dreyfus Affair — Schechter (Gollancz 1955)
The Elements of Legal Style — Bryan Garner (Oxford University Press 1991)
The Elements of Legal Writing — Faulk and Mehler (PEG 1991)
The Enigma of Felix Frankfurter — HN Hirsch (Basic Books 1981)
The Executioner’s Song — Mailer (Hutchinson 1979)
The Face of Justice — Caryl Chessman (Longmans Green 1957)
The Faces of Justice — Bedford (Collins 1961)
The Fatal Chance — Guy Bailey (Morrison and Grubb 1969)
The First Trial of Mary Queen of Scots — Donaldson (Nel Paperbacks 1974)
The Fraud — Martin Thomas (Pagemasters 1991)
The Gatton Mystery — Gibney (Penguin 1977)
The Gentleman was a thief — Hickey (Frederick Muller 1962)
The Glittering Prizes (A Study of the First Earl of Birkenhead) — William Camp (Macgibbon & Kee 1960)
The Golden Rules of Advocacy — Keith Evans (Blackstone Press 1993)
The Gospel and the Law — Parry (William Heinemann 1928)
The Great Abductors — Sparrow (John Long 1964)
The Great Assassins — Sparrow (John Long 1968)
The Great Conspirators — Judge Gerald Sparrow
The Great Deceivers — Gerald Sparrow
The Great Defamers — Judge Gerald Sparrow (John Long 1970)
The Great Defenders — Sparrow (John Long 1968)
The Great Forgers — Sparrow (John Long 1963)
The Great Judges — Sparrow (John Long 1974)
The Great Swindlers — Sparrow (John Long 1959)
The Green Bicycle Case — HR Wakefield (Philip Allan 1930)
The Happy Couple — Neville Turner & Pamela Williams (ed) (Federation Press 1994)
The Hargreaves Story — White (The Bodley Head 1963)
The Hidden Gender of Law — Graycar & Morgan (Fedaration Press 1990)
The Holmes-Pollock Letters vol I & II — Mark de Wolfe Howe (ed)
The Houndsditch Murders & The Seige of Sidney Street — Rumbelow (Penguin 1990)
The Innocence of Edith Thompson — Lewis Broad (Hutchinson 1952)
The Janowska Road — Leon Wells (Jonathon Cape 1066)
The Jester and the Court — Edward Robey (William Kimber 1976)
The Judge — Devlin (OUP 1979)
The Judges — Robert Thomson (Allen & Unwin 1986)
The Judges and the Judged — Kingston (John Lane the Bodley Head 1926)
The Judicial Humorist — William L Prosser (Little Brown 1952)
The Jury is Still Out — Davidson & Gehman (Peter Davies 1959)
The Jury Returns — Louis Nizer (Doubleday 1966)
The Justice Game — Geoffrey Robertson QC (Chatto & Widus 1998)
The King’s Peace — Inderwick (Swan Sonnenschein 1895)
The Lady Chatterley’s Lover Trial — Montgomery Hyde (Bodley Head 1990)
The Language of the Law — Blom-Cooper (Bodley Head 1965)
The Language of the Law — David Mellinkoff (Little Brown & Company 1963)
The Last Word — Oberon Waugh (Michael Joseph 1980)
The Law as Literature — Edited by Louis Blom-Cooper (The Bodley Head 1961)
The Lawyer — Haynes (Eyre & Spottiswoode 1951)
The Lawyers — Daniell (Wildy 1976)
The Legal Mystique — Michael Sexton and Lawrence Maher (Angus and Robertson 1982)
The Leo Frank Case — Leonard Dinnerstein (Notable Trials Library 1991)
The Life and Cases of Mr Justice Humphreys — Stanley Jackson (Odhams)
The Life and Famous Cases of Sir Edward Clarke — Derek Walker-Smith and Edward Clarke (Eyre & Spottiswoode 1939)
The Life of Lord Carson — Edward Marjoribanks (Victor Gollancz 1932)
The Life of Lord Darling — Derek Walker-Smith (Cassel 1938)
The Life of Lord Moulton — H Fletcher Moulton (Nisbet & Co 1922)
The Life of Patrick Hastings — Patricia Hastings (The Cresset Press 1959)
The Life of Sir Edward Marshall Hall KC — Edward Marjoribanks (Victor Gollancz 1929)
The Life of the Law — Alfred H Knight (Crown Publishers 1996)
The Madeleine Smith Affair — Hunt (Carroll & Nicholson 1950)
The Man on Your Conscience — Michael Eddowes (Cassell 1955)
The McMartin Pre-school trial — Paul and Shirley Eberle (Notable Trials Library 1997)
The Medical Murderers — Furneaux (Elek 1957)
The Memoirs of James Hardy Vaux — McLachlan ed (Heinemann 1964)
The Milwaukee Murders — Davis (True Crime 1992)
The Mirror of Justice — Curlewis (Law Book Coy 1906)
The Modern Art of Cross-Examination — Goldman (Prentice Hall 1993)
The Molineux Affair — Pejsa (Piatkus 1963)
The Monster of Dusseldorf — Wagner (Faber & Faber 1932)
The Moors Murders — Goodman (David and Charles 1983)
The Murder of Herodes — Kathleen Freeman (McDonald & Co 1946)
The Murder of Stanford White — Langford (Gollancz 1963)
The Napoleon of Crime — Ben McIntyre Farrar, Strauss, Giroux 1997)
The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code — Annas & Grodin (Oxford University Press 1992)
The New Newgate Calendar — Norman Birkett (Folio Society 1960)
The Newgate Calendar — (T Werner Lawrie 1932)
The Newgate Calendar — Norman Birkett (Folio Society 1951)
The Nuremberg Trial — Cooper (Penguin 1947)
The Nuremberg Trials — Earle Rice (Lucent 1997)
The Offenders — Giles Playfair and Derrick Sington (Secker & Warburg 1957)
The Official Lawyers Handbook — Daniel R White (Plume 1991)
The Old Bailey and its Trials — Bernard O’Donnell (Clerke & Cockeran 1951)
The Old Bailey Trial Series: Ley & Smith — Bechhofer Roberts (Jarrolds 1947)
The Old Munster Circuit — Maurice Healy (Michael Joseph Limited 1939)
The Ordeal of Philip Yale Drew — Whittington-Egan (Penguin 1989)
The Order of the Coif — Pulling (William Clowes 1884)
The Oscar Wilde File — Jonathon Goodman (Allison & Busby 1988)
The Oxford Book of Legal Anecdotes — (Oxford University Press)
The Oxford Companion to Law — Walker (Oxford University Press 1980)
The People v Clarence Darrow — Cowan (Times Books 1993)
The Pyjama Girl — Coleman (Hawthorn Press 1978)
The Queen’s Courts — Archer (Penguin 1956)
The Quotable Lawyer — Shrager and Frost (New England Publishing 1985)
The Rattenbury Case — Havers; Shankland and Barrett (Penguin 1980)
The Recollection of Sir Henry Dickens — Dickens (Heinemann 1934)
The Relevant Lawyer — Ginger (Simon & Schuster 1972)
The Royal Baccarat Scandal — Havers (Souvenir Press 1977)
The Seven Lamps of Advocacy — Judge edward Abbott Parry (Charles Scribners Sons 1924)
The Silent Twins — Wallace (Penguin 1987)
The South Sea Bubble — John Carswell (The Cresset Press 1961)
The Story of My Life — Clarence Darrow (Scribners 1932)
The Story of the Bar in Victoria — JL Forde (Whitcombe and Tombs 1913)
The Strange Case of Alger Hiss — Lord Jowitt (Hodder & Stoughton 1953)
The Strange Death of Lord Castlereagh — Montgomery Hyde (Icon 1967)
The Stuart Affair — Sir Roderic Chamberlain (Rigby 1973)
The Stuart Case — KS Inglis (Melbourne University Press 1961)
The Supreme Court — Rehnquist (Legal Classics Library 1992)
The Technique of Persuasion — Sir David Napley ((Sweet & Maxwell 1991)
The Temple of the Nineties — Gilchrist Alexander (William Hodge 1938)
The Terrible Truth About Lawyers — Mark McCormack (Beech Tree William Morrow 1987)
The Thirteenth Juror — Steve Nelson (Puaul List Verlag 1956)
The Thurtell-Hunt Murder Case — Borowitz (Robson 1987)
The Tichborne Claimant — Douglas Woodruff (Hollis and Carter 1957)
The Tichborne Impostor — Geddes MacGregor (Lippincott 1957)
The Trial of Adolf Eichmann — Russell
The Trial of Craig and Bentley — Edited by H Montgomery Hyde (William Hodge 1954)
The Trial of Doctor De Kaplany — Carolyn Anspacher (Frederick Fell 1965)
The Trial of Doctor Spock — Jessica Mitford (Macdonad 1989)
The Trial of Dr Adams — Bedford (Simon & Schuster 1959)
The Trial of Dr De Kaplany — Anspacher (Frederick Fell 1965)
The Trial of Marie Besnard — Besnard (Heinemann 1963)
The Trial of Ned Kelly — John H Phillips (Law Book Company 1987)
The Trial of Socrates — IF Stone (Johathon Cape 1988)
The Trial of Stephen Ward — Ludovic Kennedy (Gollancz 1964)
The Trial of Steven Truscott — Isabel LeBourdais (McLelland and Stewart 1966)
The Trial of Steven Truscott — Isabel Lebourdais (Victor Gollancz 1966)
The Trial of the German Major War Criminals — (HMSO 1947)
The Trial of the Germans — Eugene Davidson (University of Missouri Press 1996; orig published by Macmillan 1966)
The Unspeakable Crimes of Dr Petiot — Maeder (Penguin 1980)
The Verdict of the Court — Birkett (Herbert Jenkins 1960)
The Victorian Chancellors — Atlay (Little Brown & Co 1906)
The Victorian Underworld — Chesney (Kellow Chesney 1970)
The Ways of a Judge — Coffin (Houghton Mifflin 1980)
The Women who Murder — Michael Cannon
The Words of Justice Brandeis — Edited by Solomon Goldman (Henry Schuman 1953)
Their Good Names — H Montgomery Hyde (Hamish Hamilton 1970)
They Lost a Fortune — Mroz (Magpie 1992)
Thirty Who Were Tried — Leslie Hale (Victor Gollancz 1955)
Thirty Who Were Tried — Leslie Hale (Victor Gollancz 1955)
Though the Heavens Fall — Lord Russell (Cassell 1956)
Thurgood Marshall – Justice for All — Goldman and Gallen (Carroll & Graf 1992)
Tichborne Case — Maugham (Hodder & Stoughton 1934)
Top Lawyers and their Famous Cases — Phyllis Raybin Emert (Oliver Press 1996)
Tragedy in Dedham — Francis Russell (Longmans 1962)
Tragedy in Three Voices — Havers, Shankland and Barrett (William Kimber 1980)
Trial by Ordeal — Caryl Chessman (Longmans Green 1956)
Trial for Treason — Keeton (Macdonald 1959)
Trial Judge — Botein (Simon & Schuster 1952)
Trial of Henry Fauntleroy and other forgers — Horace Bleackley (Butterworth 1924)
Trial of King Charles I — (William Hodge & Co)
Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti (full transcript) —
Trial Tactics — Cornelius (Matthew Bender 1932)
trials —
Trials and Errors — Belton Cobb (WH Allen 1962)
Trials and Tribulations — Edited by Daniel R White (Robson Books 1989)
Tricontinental — Hugo Armstrong & Dick Gross (MUP 1995)
Trying Cases to Win (in 5 volumes) — Herbert J Stern (Aspen Publishers 1999)
Turning Right The Making of the Rehnquist Supreme Court — Savage (Wiley 1992)
Twelve Bad Men — Sidney Dark (Hodder & Stoughton)
Twenty-four Notable Trials — Richard Singer (Oswald-Sealy ?1945)
Two Studies in Crime — Yseult Bridges (Macmillan 1959)
Undue Influence — Margolick (William Morrow 1993)
Unequal Justice – Lawyers and Social Change in America — Auerbach (New York Oxford University Press 1976)
Unfair Comment — Jack Hughes-Smith (Cassell 1951)
Unfair Justice — Forbes (Forbes and Williamson 1984)
Unholy Alliances — Taibbi & Sims-Phillips (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1989)
Unit 731 Testimony — Hal Gold (Yenbooks 1996)
United in Crime — H Montgomery Hyde (The Quality Book Club 1956)
Vagabonds All — Judge Parry (Cassell & Company 1926)
Verdict — Michael A Musmanno (Peter Davies 1958)
Victors’ Justice – The Tokyo War Crimes Trials —
Vintage Murder of the Twenties — Gerald Sparrow (Arthur Barker 1972)
Wainewright The Poisoner — Andrew Motion (faber and faber 2000)
Walsh Street — Tom Noble
War Crimes Trials – Gerike & ors (Velpke Baby Home) — (William Hodge 1950)
War Crimes Trials: Belsen — (William Hodge & Co 1946)
War Crimes Trials: The Double Tenth trial — Sleeman & Silkin (eds) (wolliam Hodge)
War Crimes Trials: The Gozawa Trial — (William Hodge & Co)
War Crimes Trials: von Falkenhorst — (William Hodge 1949)
Watching Brief — Comyn (Round Hall 1993)
Waterfront — Anne Davies and Helen Trinca (Random House 2000)
We Accuse — Alsop (Gollancz 1955)
What Men Will do for Money — David Masters (Eyre & Spottiswoode 1937)
What the Judge Saw — Parry (John Murray 1912)
Who Killed Hanratty — Paul Foot (Jonathon Cape 1971)
Wicked Wicked Libels — Michael Rubenstein (ed) (Routledge and Kegan Paul 1972)
William Roughead’s Chronicles of Murder — Richard Whittington-Egan (Lochar 1991)
Without My Wig — Judge Sir Thomas Artemus Jones (The Brython Press 1944)
Witness — Whittaker Chambers (Andre Deutsch 1953)
Witness to the Holocaust — Michael Berenbaum (HarperCollins 1997)
Woman in a Wig (Biography of Joan Rosanove QC) — Isabel Carter (Lansdowne Press 1970)
World Famous Crimes — Colin Wilson (Robinson 1995)
World-Famous Acquittals — Franklin (Odhams 1970)
Worshipful Masters — AB Piddington (Angus & Robertson 1929)
Yes Your Honour — Thompson
You May Cross-examine — Herman and Goldberg (Macmillan 1937)

Books About Language

Title: 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue

Author: Capt. Francis Grose

Keys: slang, idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: B6

Title: A Dictionary of Catch Phrases

Author: Eric Partridge

Keys: words; idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 5

Title: A Dictionary of Forces Slang 1939-1955

Author: Eric Partridge

Keys: slang

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: A Dictionary of the English Language (7th ed)

Author: Samuel Johnson (1785 ed)

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: A Grammar of Style

Author: A.E. Darbyshire

Keys: usage; grammar

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: A History of English in its Own Words

Author: Carver

Keys: words; history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: A History of Modern Colloquial English

Author: Wyld (Fisher Unwin 1920)

Keys: language history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: A History of Reading

Author: Alberto Manguel

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: A History of the English Language

Author: Baugh & Cable (Routledge 1993)

Keys: language history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6A

Title: A Mouthful of Words

Author: Anthony Burgess

Keys: linguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: A New Testament Word-Book

Author: Eric Partridge

Keys: etymology and usage

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 4A

Title: A Popular Dictionary of Australian Slang

Author: Baker

Keys: words; slang

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 2

Title: A Wealth of Words

Author: Fowler and Russell

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: A Word in Edgeways

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: A Word in Your Ear

Author: Philip Howard

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Adjectives and other Words

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Adventuring Among Words

Author: Partridge

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: All Trivia

Author: Pearsall-Smith

Keys: miscellaneous

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Ambrose Bierce

Author: Richard O’Connor

Keys: epigrams

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: America in so many Words

Author: David K Barnhart, Allan A Metcalf

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: American English

Author: Albert H Marckwardt

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: An Anthology of Invective and Abuse

Author: Kingsmill

Keys: language; quotations; insults

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: An Etymological Dictionary

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 6A

Title: An Exaltation of Larks

Author: Lipton

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Aussie English

Author: John O’Grady

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Aussie Talk

Author: Macquarie

Keys: words, slang

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3A

Title: Australia Speaks

Author: Baker

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Australian English

Author: Ramson

Keys: words, australian english, slang

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Australian Underworld Slang

Author: Simes

Keys: words; slang

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Australian Words and their Origins

Author: Oxford

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Bloomsbury Dictionary of Differences

Author: Laurence Urdang

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Bloomsbury Dictionary of Difficult Words

Author: Laurence Urdang

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Bloomsbury Thesaurus

Author: Bloomsbury (1993)

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Book of Insults and Irreverent Quotations

Author: Hook and Kahn

Keys: quotations; language; insults

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Book of Words

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Breaking Priscian’s Head

Author: J.Y.T Greig

Keys: dialect, pronunciation

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Brewers Dictionary of Names

Author: Brewer

Keys: etymology words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: British and American Usage since 1900

Author: Partridge and Clarke

Keys: language; american english; usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Browser’s Dictionary

Author: Ciardi

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 4

Title: Cassell Dictionary of Insulting Quotations

Author: Jonathon Green

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Cassell’s Book of Humourous Quotations

Author:

Keys: quotations; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Caught in the Web of Words

Author: Murray

Keys: biography; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Caxton and his World

Author: N.F. Blake

Keys: printing

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Chamber of Horrors

Author: Vigilans (foreword by Eric Partridge)

Keys: barbarisms

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Chambers Thesaurus

Author:

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1951)

Author: dictionary

Keys:

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1993)

Author: dictionary

Keys:

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Changing English

Author: Potter

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Chasing the Sun

Author: Jonathon Green

Keys: lexicography

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Chomsky

Author: Lyons

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Chosen Words

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Colins Dictionary of Literary Quotations

Author:

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Comfortable Words

Author: Bergen Evans

Keys: words; usage

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 3A

Title: Complete Plain Words

Author: Gowers (HMSO 1955)

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Complete Plain Words

Author: Gowers (Pelican 1958)

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Concise Dicdionary of Twenty Languages

Author: Bergman

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Curious Words

Author: Leslie Dunkling

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Currnet English Usage

Author: Frederick T Wood, RH Flavell, LM Flavell

Keys: usage,grammar

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Cynic’s Lexicon

Author: Green

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Death Sentence

Author: Don Watson

Keys: management speak; misuse of language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Devil’s Dictionary

Author: Bierce

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Devious Derivations

Author: Hugh Rawson

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 5A

Title: Dictionaries American and English

Author: J.R. Hulbert

Keys: lexicography

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Dictionary of Austral English

Author: Morris

Keys: dictionary, australian english

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 3A

Title: Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms

Author: Wilkes

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Dictionary of Biographical Quotation

Author: Wintle and Kenin (eds)

Keys: quotes

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of Cliches

Author: Eric Partridge

Keys: cliche, idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of Dates

Author: Rhys (ed)

Keys: miscellaneous

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of English Idioms

Author: Harrap

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Dictionary of Eponyms

Author: Manser

Keys: eponyms words etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 2

Title: Dictionary of Fictional Characters

Author: Freeman

Keys: miscellaneous

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 2

Title: Dictionary of Historical Slang

Author: Partridge (Penguin)

Keys: slang

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: B6

Title: Dictionary of Idioms

Author: Flavell

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Dictionary of Modern Phrase

Author: Graeme Donald

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of Musical Quotations

Author: (Wordsworth Library)

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of New Words

Author: Jonathon Green

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of New Words

Author: Jonathon Green

Keys: neologisms

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: B6

Title: Dictionary of Phrase and Allusion

Author: Rees

Keys: idiom allusion

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins

Author: William and Mary Morris

Keys: etymology, idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Dictionary of Word Origins

Author: Ayto

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Dictionary of Word Origins

Author: Jordan Almond

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 5A

Title: Dictionary of Word Origins

Author: Linda and Roger Flavell

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Dictionary of Wordmakers

Author: Hunt

Keys: eponyms etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 2

Title: Dictionary of Words Facts and Phrases

Author: Eliezer Edwards

Keys: etymology; origins

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Digger Dialects

Author: WH Downing (ed by JM Arthur & WS Ramson)

Keys: Australian English, slang

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3A

Title: Dimboxes Epopts and other Quidams

Author: Grambs

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Notes: 6

Title: Dinkum Dictionary

Author: Johansen

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Disorderly Discourse – Narrative, Conflict and Inequality

Author: Charles L Briggs

Keys: language and discourse

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Doublespeak

Author: William Lutz

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4A

Title: Encyclopaedia of Phrases and Origins

Author: Crowther

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: English – a Course for Human Beings

Author: Partridge (Macdonald 1955)

Keys: grammar

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: English Biblical Translation

Author: A.C. Partridge

Keys: usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: English Colloquial Idioms

Author: Wood

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: English Idioms and How to Use Them

Author: W. McMordie

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Title: English Idioms and How to Use Them

Author: W. McMordie

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Title: English our English (and how to sing it)

Author: Keith Waterhouse

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: English Past and Present

Author: Trench

Keys: language, history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: English Synonyms Explained

Author: Crabb

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: English Transported

Author: W.S. Ramson

Keys: Australian English usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Enlarged Devil’s Dictionary

Author: Bierce

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Eric Partridge in his Own Words

Author: David Crystal (ed)

Keys: language; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Essays on Language and Usage

Author: Dean & Wilson (ed)

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3; sections on: dictionaries words and meanings; the history of english; the structure of english; usage; and style.

Includes Orwell’s essay on Politics and the English Language

Title: Et Cetera Et Cetera

Author: Lewis Thomas

Keys: etymology; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Euphemisms

Author: John Ayto

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Fair of Speech: The uses of Euphemism

Author: Enright

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Falling into Language

Author: Chris Wallace-Crabbe

Keys: language; poetry

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3A

Title: Fighting Words

Author: Christine Ammer

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 4

Title: Five Hundred Years of Printing

Author: Steinberg

Keys: printing

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Forgotten English

Author: Jeffrey Kacirk

Keys: etymology, social history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Forked Tongues

Author: Graham Jones

Keys: euphemism, lies, excuses

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Freedom of Speech

Author: Eric Barendt

Keys: free speech, censorship, obscenity

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Genderspeak

Author: Elgin (John Wiley 1993)

Keys: language; gender-bias

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Glancing Blows

Author: Buzo

Keys: language; australian english

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Good English Guide

Author: Godfrey Howard

Keys: words; usage

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Good Writing Guide

Author: Nick Renton (The Business Library1997)

Keys: grammar, usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Grooming Gossip and the Evolution of Language

Author: Robin Dunbar

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4A

Title: Growth and Structure of the English Language

Author: Jesperson

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Guinness Book of Poisonous Quotes

Author: ed Colin Jarman

Keys: quotes

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Handbook of English Fundamentals

Author: Emery, Kierzek and Lindblom

Keys: grammar, usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Harmless Drudges

Author: Israel Schenker

Keys: dictionaries; words; lexicography

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Having the Last Word

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Heavens to Betsy

Author: Funk

Keys: words; idiom; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Here There and Everywhere

Author: Partridge

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: History in English Words

Author: Barfield

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Hue and Cry to Humble Pie

Author: Judy Parkinson

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: I Break my Word

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Idiom Savant

Author: Jerry Dunn

Keys:idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: In a Word

Author: Ernst and Thurber

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: In Other Words

Author: C.J Moore

Keys: foreign words

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Johnson’s Dictionary and the Language of Learning

Author: DeMaria

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Johnson’s Dictionary: a Modern Selection

Author: McAdam & Milne (ed)

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Joysprick

Author: Anthony Burgess

Keys: language of James Joyce

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Just Another Word

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Keywords

Author: Williams

Keys: words; language development

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Language

Author: Rod Mengham

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Language – Its Nature Develpoment and Origins

Author: Jesperson

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Language and Learning

Author: Britton

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Language and the Pursuit of Truth

Author: John Wilson

Keys: language, philosophy

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Language in Action

Author: Hayakawa

Keys: language; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Language in Danger

Author: Andrew Dalby

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: language; development and disappearances of languages

Title: Language in History

Author: Harold Goad

Keys: language, history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Language in the Modern World

Author: Simeon Potter

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Language in Thought and Action

Author: S.I. Hayakawa & Basil Pillard

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Language Made Plain

Author: Anthony Burgess

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: B6

Title: Language Made Plain

Author: Burgess

Keys: linguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Language Truth and Logic

Author: Ayer

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Language: The Loaded Weapon

Author: Dwight Bolinger

Keys: usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4A

Title: Law in Shakespeare

Author: Cushman K Davis

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: use of legal terms in Shakespeare’s plays

Title: Law Words

Author: Centre for Plain Legal Language

Keys: words; legal

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6A

Title: Le Mot Juste

Author: Ehrlich

Keys: words; foreign phrases; dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Liberty and Language

Author: Geoffrey Sampson

Keys: linguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3A

Title: Linguistics

Author: David Crystal (Penguin 1971)

Keys: linguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Linguistics at Large

Author: Minnis (ed)

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Loose Cannons and Red Herrings

Author: Claiborne

Keys: idiom; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Made in America

Author: Bryson

Keys: language; american english

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Magill’s Quotations in Context

Author: Magill

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Mankind Nation and the Individual

Author: Jesperson

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Manual of English Grammar and Composition

Author: Nesfield

Keys: grammar

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Mastering English Grammar

Author: Burton

Keys: grammar

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Metaphors We Live By

Author: George Lakoff & Mark Johnson

Keys: language, metaphor

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:4A

Title: Mind your Language

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Moder English Usage (3rd edn)

Author: Fowler (ed Burchfield)

Keys: usage, grammar, language

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 4

Title: Modern American Usage

Author: Horwill

Keys: language, american english; usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Modern Australian Usage

Author: Hudson

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Modern English Usage

Author: Fowler

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Modern English Usage

Author: Fowler (Gowers edn)

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Modern Linguistics

Author: Simeon Potter

Keys: linguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Mother Tongue: The English Language

Author: Bryson

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Mrs Byrne’s Dictionary of Unusual Obscure and Preposterous Words

Author: Josefa Heifetz Byrne

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 4

Title: My Word

Author: Jeans

Keys: etymology; words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Name into Word

Author: Partridge (Secker & Warburg 1950)

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Name into Word – a discursive Dictionary

Author: Partridge (Secker & Warburg 1950)

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: New Words for Old

Author: Philip Howard

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Nineteen Eightyfour

Author: George Orwell

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: No Idle Words

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Noblesse Oblige

Author: Mitford (ed)

Keys: language; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Oddities and Curiosities of Language

Author: Bombaugh

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Old and Middle English

Author: T.L. Kington Oliphant

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: On The Study of Words

Author: Trench (revised by Mayhew)

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: One Word and Another

Author: V.H. Collins

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 3A

Title: Origins

Author: Partridge

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Origins and Meanings of Popular Phrases and names

Author: Basil Hargrave

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Our Language

Author: Potter

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Oxford Companion to the English Language

Author: (ed Tom McArthur)

Keys: language; words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Oxford Dictionary of New Words

Author: dictionary

Keys: dictionary; neologisms

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: B6

Title: Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (2nd ed)

Author:

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (3rd ed)

Author: quotations

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed)

Author: dictionary

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Payton’s Proper Names

Author: Payton

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Pedigree: Words from Nature

Author: Stephen Potter and Laurens Sargent

Keys: etymology; word origins from natural phenomena

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4A

Title: Penguin Dictionary of Surnames

Author: etymology

Keys:

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Plain Language for Lawyers

Author: Michael Asprey

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Points of View

Author: Burchfield

Keys: language; usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: POSH

Author: Michael Quinion

Keys: word origins and myths; idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Puns

Author: Walter Redfern

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: puns, verbal and visual

Title: Reflections on Language

Author: Chomsky

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Right Words

Author: Murray-Smith

Keys: words, australian usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Roget’s Thesaurus

Author:

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Romance of Words

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Say the Word

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Scorn with added Vitriol

Author: Mathew Parris

Keys: language; quotations; insults

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Selected Writings of Otto Jespersen

Author: Jespersen

Keys: language, semantics, etymology, grammer, change

Alpha Y/N: N

Notes:

Title: Shades of Meaning

Author: Samuel R Levin

Keys: synonyms, semantics

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Short History of the Printed Word

Author: Warren Chappell

Keys: printing; language history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Shorter Oxford English Dictionary

Author: dictionary

Keys:

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: Simpsons Contemporary Quotations

Author: Simpson and Boorshin

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Slang and Euphemism

Author: Richard A Spears

Keys: slang

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Slang Down the Ages

Author: Jonathon Green

Keys: words; slang

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Something about Words

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Speaking Freely – A Guided Tour of American English

Author: Stuart Berg Flexner and Anne H Soukhanov

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Spelling

Author: G H Vallins

Keys: spelling

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Straight and Crooked Thinking

Author: Thouless

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Studies in Words

Author: CS Lewis

Keys: language, usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Subtext

Author: Fast

Keys: language; communication

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Superior Person’s Little Book of Words

Author: Bowler

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Sweet’s Anglo-Saxon Primer

Author: Sweet (revised by Norman Davis)

Keys: early English

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Tautology

Author: Buzo

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: That Takes the Cake

Author: R Brasch

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: The A – Z of Non-sexist Language

Author: Margaret Doyle

Keys: gender-bias; language; words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: The American Language

Author: Mencken

Keys: language; american english

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: The Art of Plain Talk

Author: Flesch

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Ascent of Babel

Author: Gerry T M Altmann

Keys: psycholinguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: The Australian Language

Author: Baker

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Australian Way with Words

Author: Harris

Keys: words, australian english

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3A

Title: The Best English

Author: GH Vallins

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The Book of Babel

Author: Nigel Lewis

Keys: words; metaphor

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: The Cambridge Australian English Style Guide

Author: Pam Peters

Keys: usage

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The Cynic’s Dictionary

Author: Rick Bayan

Keys: aphorisms

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The Dictionary of Contemporary Slang

Author: Tony Thorne

Keys: slang

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The Dictionary of Australian Quotations

Author: Murray-Smith

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: The Dictionary of Diseased English

Author: Hudson (Macmillan 1978)

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: The Dictionary of Modern Phrase

Author: Graeme Donald

Keys: idiom, neologism

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: B6

Title: The Dictionary of Phrase and Fable

Author: Brewer

Keys: words; miscellaneous

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes:

Title: The Drum

Author: Baker

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Elements of Legal Writing

Author: Martha Faulk and Irving Mehler

Keys: language; style

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6A

Title: The Elements of Style

Author: Strunk and White

Keys: usage; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: The Endangered English Dictionary

Author: David Grambs

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The English Language

Author: Burchfield

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The English Language

Author: David Crystal

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: The English Language

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The English Language

Author: W.F. Bolton and David Crystal

Keys: language; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: The English Language

Author: Wrenn

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The F Word

Author: Jesse Sheidlower (ed)

Keys: slang, euphemism

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The Gentle Art of Lexicography

Author: Partridge (Deutsch 1963)

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The Handbook of Non-sexist Writing

Author: Casey Miller and Kate Swift

Keys: gender-bias; language; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: The Highly Selective Dictionary for the Extraordnarily Literate

Author: Eugene Ehrlich

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The History of English

Author: McCrum Cran McNeil

Keys: language history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: The History of the English Language

Author: Emerson

Keys: language history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The Household Dictionary of the English Language

Author: (William Collins & Co, approx 1880-1890)

Keys: dictionaries

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: illustrated, said to be based on Johnson, Walker, Webster and Worcester; contains a history of the English language, (gives pronunciations ‘umour, ‘erb, but historic)

Title: The Importance of Language

Author: Max Black (ed) (Prentice Hall 1962)

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: The King’s English

Author: Fowler

Keys: language; usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: The King’s English

Author: Kingsley Amis

Keys: usage

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 4

Title: The Language Instinct

Author: Steven Pinker

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The Left Handed Dictionary

Author: Leonard Louis Levinson

Keys: words, cynicism

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: B6

Title: The Life and Times of the English Language

Author: Claiborne

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N: 4

Notes:

Title: The Little Book of Aussie Insults

Author: Robert Treborlang

Keys: quotations; insults

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 2

Title: The Little Book of Famous Insults

Author: Ramsey (ed)

Keys: quotations; language; insults

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Loom of Language

Author: Hogben (ed)

Keys: languages

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Lost Beauties of the English Language

Author: Charles Mackay

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: The Making of English

Author: Henry Bradley

Keys: language, etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: The New First Aid in English

Author: Angus MacIver

Keys: vocabulary, grammar

Alpha Y/N: N

Notes:

Title: The Origins and Development of the English Language

Author: Thomas Pyles and John Alego

Keys: language history

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3A

Title: The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs

Author: (ed) JA Simpson

Keys: proverbs

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: The Penguin Dictionaary of Proverbs

Author:

Keys: proverbs

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Title: The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Words

Author: Saussy

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: The Penguin Rhyming Dictionary

Author:

Keys: rhyme

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: The Penguin Working Words

Author:

Keys: words; usage

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: The Ploitically Incorrect Phrasebook

Author: Nigel Rees

Keys: language, humour

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4A

Title: The Power of Babel

Author: John McWhorter

Keys: languages

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: The Private Lives of English Words

Author: Heller Humez and Dror

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: The Queen’s English

Author: Arnold Wall

Keys: language; usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: The Queen’s English

Author: Harry Blamires

Keys: usage; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: The Slang Thesaurus

Author: Jonathon Green

Keys: slang

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: B6

Title: The Spell of Words

Author: Levitt

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: The State of the Language

Author: Philip Howard

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: The State of the Language

Author: Ricks and Michaels (ed)

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6; essays on contemporary language and usage

Title: The Story of Language

Author: Pei

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Story of the Alphabet

Author: Edward Clodd

Keys: language development

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: The Surgeon of Crowthorne

Author: Simon Winchester

Keys: dictionaries

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: an account of the contributions of W.C. Minor to the Oxford English Dictionary

Title: The Treasure of Our Tongue

Author: Lincoln Barnett

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Tyranny of Words

Author: Chase

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: The Use of English

Author: Quirk

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: The Word Museum

Author: Jeffrey Kacirk

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: words; archaic words

Title: The Words We Use

Author: J.A. Sheard

Keys: language development

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: The Words we Use

Author: Robert Lord

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: The Wordsworth Book of Intriguing Words

Author: Paul Hellweg

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6; a collection of words from various obscure aspects of life, including ‘manias, various acronyms, etc

Title: Thereby Hangs a Tale

Author: Funk

Keys: words; idiom; etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 5

Title: Thesaurus of American Slang

Author: Robert Chapman

Keys: slang; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: B6

Title: Thesaurus of Quotations

Author: Fuller

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: They Have a Word for It

Author: Howard Rheingold

Keys: gap words, vocabulary

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Trash Cash Fizzbos and Flatliners: a Dictionary of Today’s Words

Author: Sid Lerner (Houghton Mifflin 1993)

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: B6

Title: Tudor to Augustan English

Author: A.C. Partridge

Keys: usage

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Twentieth Century Speeches

Author: Brian MacArthur

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: B6

Title: Uncumber and Pantaloon

Author: Gillian Edwards

Keys: idiom etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Universal Etymological English Dictionary

Author: Nathaniel Bailey (London 1752)

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6A

Title: Unlocking the English Language

Author: Burchfield

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Usage and Abusage

Author: Partridge

Keys: usage; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Using Words

Author: John Casson

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6A

Title: Vocabula Unbound

Author: Robert Hartwell Fiske (ed)

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: language; idiom; usage; words

Title: Voices of Man

Author: Pei

Keys: language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Walker’s Dictionary

Author: Walker (1828)

Keys: dictionary

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6A

Title: Weasel Words

Author: Don Watson

Keys: management speak; misuse of language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Weasel Words

Author: Philip Howard

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Weeds in the Garden of Words

Author: Kate Burridge

Keys:

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: history of language; idiom

Title: What a Word

Author: A.P. Herbert

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: What’s the Difference

Author: Norman Moss

Keys: words; american english

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 4

Title: What’s the Word

Author: Safire

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: When a Loose Cannon…

Author: Olivia Isil

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 6

Title: When Words Lose Their Meaning

Author: White (University of Chicago Press 1989)

Keys: linguistics

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Why Do We Say…

Author: Nigel Rees

Keys: idiom

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 3A

Title: Winged Words

Author: Philip Howard

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Word Origins

Author: Wilfred Funk

Keys: etymology, idiom

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes: 6

Title: Wordpower

Author: Edward de Bono

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Words – an Illustrated History of Western Languages

Author: Victor Stevenson (ed)

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6A

Title: Words about Words

Author: Smith and Exel

Keys: etymology and philology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Words Ancient and Modern

Author: Ernest Weekley

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Words and Idioms

Author: Pearsall Smith

Keys: words; idiom

Alpha Y/N

Notes: 5

Title: Words and Rules

Author: Stephen Pinker

Keys: linguistics, language change

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Words and their Ways in English Speech

Author: Greenough and Kittredge

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 2

Title: Words and Ways of American English

Author: Pyles

Keys: words; language

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Words and Women

Author: Casey Miller and Kate Swift

Keys: gender-bias; language; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Words Fail Me

Author: Philip Howard

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Words from History

Author: Asimov

Keys: etymology

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 6

Title: Words in Everyday Life

Author: Brook (Macmillan 1981)

Keys: words; etymology

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Words in our Time

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Words in Season

Author: Ivor Brown

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 1

Title: Words in Sheep’s Clothing

Author: Pei

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6

Title: Words in the Making

Author: Vallins

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 1

Title: Words in Time

Author: Geoffrey Hughes

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 5

Title: Words of Wisdom

Author: William Safire

Keys: quotations

Alpha Y/N: &Y

Notes: 3

Title: Words on Words

Author: David Crystal and Hilary Crystal

Keys: words, quotations

Alpha Y/N: Y

Notes:

Title: Words Words Words

Author: Peterson

Keys: language; australian english

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 4

Title: Wordstruck

Author: MacNeil (Faber & Faber 1989)

Keys: biography

Alpha Y/N:

Notes:

Title: Wordwatching

Author: Julian Burnside

Keys:

Alpha Y

Notes: language; idiom; usage; words

Title: World of Words

Author: Partridge

Keys: words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 3

Title: Worldly Wise

Author: McDonald

Keys: etymology; words

Alpha Y/N:

Notes: 6